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Valerie Githinji and Todd A. Crane

1. Introduction Across Africa, climate change and variability pose additional stresses to smallholder farmers who already have challenging livelihoods. Widespread and gendered poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, HIV/AIDS, and agricultural transition and decline wrought by an increase in pathogens affecting people, plants, and animals; decreasing soil fertility; and diminishing farming land are among the chief challenges currently affecting the Bahaya ( Githinji 2008 , 2009a , b , 2011a

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Michael Paolisso, Ellen Douglas, Ashley Enrici, Paul Kirshen, Chris Watson, and Matthias Ruth

vulnerable have the least voice and lack equal protection of interests from their national governments. Among the vulnerable, climate change may especially burden those who already struggle with current climate variability and extreme weather events ( O’Brien et al. 2004 ; Adger 2003 ; Wilson et al. 2010 ). The impacts of climate variability and extreme weather events are often felt more intensely in coastal areas because the coastal zone defines the confluence of both marine and terrestrial processes

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Kelly Helm Smith, Mark E. Burbach, Michael J. Hayes, Patrick E. Guinan, Andrew J. Tyre, Brian Fuchs, Tonya Haigh, and Mark D. Svoboda

collect and display user reports, which are now called condition-monitoring observer reports (CMOR, pronounced “see more”; current version: https://go.unl.edu/CMOR_drought ). Survey123 enables users such as the NDMC to design and deploy web-based forms to collect place-based observations, including photographs, and to display observations on a map. Being able to create and deploy a survey and map using off-the-shelf capabilities, without the time and expense of custom programming, enables an

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Morris W. Foster and Emily E. Steinhilber

response, respectively, to global epidemics and climate change that know no political boundaries as well as politically bounded local efforts to adapt to the ground-level consequences of those phenomena. Although the larger scientific and policy issues were debated on national and international stages, much of the work of sanitary reform was done locally. In the course of that nineteenth-century process, both New Orleans and Norfolk necessarily developed more centralized municipal polities with more

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. NARCCAP uses regional climate models (RCMs) with lateral boundary conditions given by output from global climate models (GCMs) or a global reanalysis, the NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). Our analysis uses two of the NARCCAP RCMs, the Canadian RCM (denoted CRCM in the NARCCAP archive) and the U.S. Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Grell-Devenyi Cumulus Scheme (denoted WRFG in the NARCCAP archive). Both simulated

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

use data (referred to as ALU simulations). These results are compared with outputs from an ideal extreme land use scenario (ELU simulation) in which the dryland crop pasture classes were converted to an urban class. Model results were evaluated using surface and vertical atmospheric observations. The ELU simulation resulted in a land use distribution resembling current patterns over the SWFWMD and leads to discussions regarding the possible impacts of the extreme urbanization. We pay particular

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Kathleen Sherman-Morris, Holly Lussenden, Alexandra Kent, and Caroline MacDonald

of the current study is to better understand how meteorologists across the United States perceive social science and to determine what social science–related research would be most beneficial for them to be more efficient in communicating with their audience. The study pursued the following research questions: How do Warning Coordination Meteorologists (WCMs) feel about NOAA’s level of attention to social science, and what is their experience with social scientists? What are the perceived social

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Peter H. Gleick

-term drought and most severe set of crop failures since agricultural civilizations began in the Fertile Crescent many millennia ago” [Gary Nabhan, as cited by Femia and Werrell (2012) ]. In the current civil war, some analysts have argued that factors related to drought, including agricultural failure, water shortages, and water mismanagement, have played an important role in contributing to the deterioration of social structures and spurring violence ( Femia and Werrell 2013 ; FAO 2012 ; Mhanna 2013

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Bogdan Antonescu and Felicia Cărbunaru

on administrative boundaries. Section 7 details how lightning fatalities are distributed by living area, gender, and age groups. Finally, section 8 summarizes the results of this paper. 2. Data and methods The lightning-related fatality data used in this article were collected from medical death certificates by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics. The lightning fatality data were then verified and added to a database developed and maintained by the National Center for Statistics and

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Elizabeth C. McNie

scale and context ( Pielke 2007 ; McNie et al. 2007 ). Our current efforts in producing useful information to address climate adaptation and other coupled human–environmental problems are inadequate, and we need to improve our abilities to produce useful information for decision support ( NRC 2012 , 2009a , b , 2007a , b , 2005a , b , 1999 ; CCSP 2008 ; Committee on Science 2002 ; Mayden 2002 ; Ehlers 1998 ). At present, producing more useful information often involves increasing research

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