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A. Rosati and K. Miyakoda

andthen to verify from observations. This will be an iterative process where we hope the results will convergeto the observations. It is within this framework that wewill be investigating model improvements (diurnalvariation, increased vertical and horizontal resolution);external forcing (data source, bulk formula exchangecoefficients, 1000 mb versus surface data); and,radiation improvements (inclusion of realistic cloud cover).Particular emphasis will be placed on obtaining theproper strength for the

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John R. Moisan and Pearn P. Niiler

NODC archives to obtain temperature data and the COADS to obtain the climate observations. There are other sources of data available to use in calculating the NHF and HSR. This study only focused on the COADS and NODC data. Results from this study can now be used in several areas of oceanography. The correct seasonal NHF can be used to force mixed layer models. The new cloud parameterization can be used to estimate the solar irradiance. And, because most of the regions on the North Pacific were

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Shin’ichiro Kako and Masahisa Kubota

to the appearance of anomalous temperature. However, on a time scale shorter than approximately 10 yr, most studies have mentioned that surface heat fluxes play a dominant role in forcing midlatitude SST anomalies ( Gill and Niiler 1973 ; Salmon and Hendershott 1976 ; Frankignoul and Reynolds 1983 ; Battisti et al. 1995 ; Halliwell and Mayer 1996 ), while Ekman pumping plays a negligible role ( White et al. 1980 ; Haney et al. 1983 ; Schneider et al. 1999 ). By using satellite data, Tomita

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G. W. K. Moore, K. Alverson, and I. A. Renfrew

( Gordon 1981 ; Martinson et al. 1981 ; Gordon 1982 ). This paper represents the first attempt to redress this situation and to provide quantitative information regarding the air–sea interaction associated with the Weddell polynya. This is of interest in its own right, but is made even more important by the large and relatively unknown climate signal that resulted from the oceanic convection forced by this interaction. We therefore also calculate the impact that this atmospheric forcing would have

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A. Capotondi and M. A. Alexander

observations ( Haney 1971 ). The relaxation timescale is relatively short (30–60 days for typical mixed layer depths), so that the SST in the model can be expected to be strongly constrained by the surface forcing rather than by the interior ocean dynamics. Cloud fraction and solar radiation are derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) dataset ( Bishop and Rossow 1991 ; Rossow and Schiffer 1991 ) when the data coverage is adequate (1984–91), while the ISCCP monthly

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, Michael J. McPhaden, Ju Chen, Weiqiang Wang, and Dongxiao Wang

1. Introduction Sea surface winds over the tropical Indian Ocean exhibit strong intraseasonal variability (ISV), which is associated with atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs), with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) as the dominated mode (e.g., Madden and Julian 1971 ; Hendon and Glick 1997 ; Webster et al. 2002 ; Shinoda et al. 2013 ). In response to the surface wind forcing, the upper-ocean circulation of the tropical Indian Ocean shows strong intraseasonal variations (e

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S. Sathiyamoorthy and G. W. K. Moore

30 years worth) at a temporal resolution high enough to resolve individual weather systems ( Diaz et al. 1987 ). In this study, we investigate what the data from OWS Bravo can tell us about the forcing that drives deep water formation in the Labrador Sea basin. The circulation in the Labrador Sea is mainly cyclonic, with the West Greenland Current on the east, the Baffin Island Current along the north, the Labrador Current along the west, and the Atlantic Current to the south (see Fig. 1 ). This

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George R. Halliwell Jr., Peter Cornillon, and Deirdre A. Byrne

1986-87, and they had characteristic wavelengths of ~800 km in the minor axis direction andperiods of ~200 days. Local forcing by synoptic atmospheric variability alone could not account for the existenceof these features. Anomaly features propagated westward in a manner consistent with theoretical zonal dispersionproperties of first-mode baroclinic Rossby waves, suggesting that the anomalies may be coupled to a field ofwavelike eddies. Since the anomalies were confined to the zonal band of large

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Byoung-Ju Choi and John L. Wilkin

1. Introduction Observations and numerical simulations have shown that local wind forcing significantly affects the dispersal of a river plume as it enters the coastal ocean ( Pullen and Allen 2000 ; Fong and Geyer 2001 ; García Berdeal et al. 2002 ; Janzen and Wong 2002 ; Whitney and Garvine 2006 ). This is particularly true of surface-advected plumes where the river outflow forms a thin layer riding on more dense shelf water, and consequently has diminished interaction with the bathymetry

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R-C. Lien, B. Sanford, and W-T. Tsai

, has never been measured directly. Laboratory experiments cannot realistically simulate high-Reynolds-number vorticity and its interaction with surface waves. Therefore, no proper parameterization scheme for Langmuir turbulence is available. It is generally believed that LC is generated by the vortex force as a result of the interaction between the Stokes drift velocity u S and the background vorticity ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). The interaction between u S and the cross-streak component of

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