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J. Dana Thompson and James S. O'Brien

. In the frequency band below and including theinertial, remarkable similarities are observed between the results of the nonlinear model and actual oceancurrent autospectra.1. Introduction Coastal upwelling off the west coasts of continentsaffects both the marine ecology and the climate of theadjacent land. The disproportionately high biologicalproductivity in the narrow band of cold upwelled wateris economically significant. The reader is referred toSmith (1968) for a complete review of the

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Georgy V. Shevchenko, Alexander B. Rabinovich, and Richard E. Thomson

depends on the ice rheology and concentration ( Hibler 1986 ; Wadhams 2000 ; Heil and Hibler 2002 ). The ice cover, in turn, affects the tidal motions and wind-driven currents. The presence of the coast produces additional effects, such as formation of land-fast ice and coastal friction, that cause further complications in the ice–ocean response ( Overland and Pease 1988 ). In effect, the observed ice-drift motions result from a complex interacting system involving air, sea, ice, and land. Ice

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D. E. Harrison and A. P. Craig

thermal evolution (Fig. 2a)during the same period. In July, there is rapid warmingthroughout the water column. From August 1982 toNovember 1982, there is weak warming above 160 m.Water warmer than 30- appears above 70 m in October. From late November 1982 through January1983, there is shoaling and intensification of the thermocline. During this period the thermocline is verysharp and the 28- and 18-C isotherms are separatedby only about 30 m. In January there is rapid warmingof water colder than 18-C

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Daniel C. Jones, Emma Boland, Andrew J. S. Meijers, Gael Forget, Simon Josey, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and Emily Shuckburgh

thermodynamic balance of Losch et al. (2010) . Open ocean rain, evaporation, and runoff simply carry (advect through the free surface) the local SST and a salinity value of zero, and runoff is provided by a monthly climatology ( Fekete et al. 2002 ). ECCOv4 calculates buoyancy, radiative, and mass fluxes using the bulk formulae of Large and Yeager (2009) with 6-hourly ERA-Interim reanalysis fields ( Dee et al. 2011 ) as a “first guess” for the forcing fields. Specifically, we use wind stress, 2-m air

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SungHyun Nam and Uwe Send

. 1a ), and five other pier/land stations (green diamond in Fig. 1a ) are used to estimate wind stress τ using the quadratic law τ = ρ a C D | W | W where air density ρ a = 1.25 kg m −3 with a drag coefficient C D according to Anderson (1993) . Low-pass and bandpass filters are used to extract subinertial (periods longer than 30 h) and diurnal (15–35 h) fluctuations from horizontal currents u = u + iυ and wind stress τ = τ x + iτ y in a complex form although unfiltered

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Andreas Münchow

), disintegrating ice shelves of northern Canada ( Copland et al. 2007 ), and potentially surging glaciers of northern Greenland ( Rignot and Steffen 2008 ; Johnson et al. 2011 ). Models of global climate projections are sensitive to the parameterizations of both processes and pathways of freshwater flux from the Arctic to the North Atlantic ( Holland et al. 2007 ; Curry and Mauritzen 2005 ). The pack ice and upper Arctic Ocean are a reservoir of nearly 100 000 km 3 of freshwater ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989

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Robert Hays Spigel and Jörg Imberger

effects and the wind deepening mechanism isdescribed explicitly by the program logic. Results of a successful simulation by DYRESM for a season inthe Wellington Reservoir, Western Australia, are discussed..1. Introduction Application of wind stress to a stratified lake induces large-scale motions (circulations and waves);the wind also stirs the surface waters to form a turbulent, well-mixed layer--the epilimnion--whichdeepens as colder water from the hypolimnion isentrained into the epilimnion. We

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Wenju Cai

circulation feature and yields solutions similar to those without thermal forcing, that is,with a persistent oscillation.1. Introduction Recently, there has been a surge of research interestin the internal variability of the ocean thermohaline circulation (e.g., Welander 1986; Broecker et al. 1990;Marotzke 1990; Mikolajewicz and Maier-Reimer 1990;Wright and Stocker 1991; Weaver and Sarachik1991a,b; Weaver et al. 1993; Lenderink and Haarsmai993; Winton and Sarachik 1993). The research is especially

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Robert Hallberg and Anand Gnanadesikan

)—these are essentially surges in the boundary currents, often associated with the large coherent loops visible in Fig. 6 . There are several regions with southward eddy transport of water that is substantially lighter than the mean values, for example around 130°W at 60°S and the small southward transports in the lee of Kerguélen (80°E). These are the oceanic equivalent of the wintertime cold air outbreaks described by Held and Schneider (1999) in their characterization of the isentropic overturning

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Nirnimesh Kumar, Falk Feddersen, Sutara Suanda, Yusuke Uchiyama, and James McWilliams

semidiurnal internal tide on the inner-shelf induces heat and nitrate fluxes (e.g., Lucas et al. 2011 ; Wong et al. 2012 ). Internal waves pump nutrients up into the euphotic zone, initiating phytoplankton blooms ( Omand et al. 2012 ) and inducing larval transport ( Pineda 1999 ). Cold waters are advected by nonlinear internal waves across the shelf (e.g., Pineda 1994 ; Nam and Send 2011 ) all the way into the surfzone ( Sinnett and Feddersen 2014 ). On the SPB mid- to inner-shelf region, significant

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