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Wenhui Wang and Cheng-Zhi Zou

in more consistent multisatellite radiance observations: 1) new constant offsets and nonlinearity coefficients for channels 4–14 were estimated using SNO matchups and global mean temperatures analysis to minimize sun-heating-induced instrument temperature variability in radiances and scene temperature dependency in biases; 2) time-dependent bias drifts in NOAA-16 and MetOp-A were corrected using time-dependent level 1c calibration coefficients; and 3) calibration nonlinearity drift was

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Aleksi Nummelin, Stephen Jeffress, and Thomas Haine

calculated from Fig. 6 . Here we have ignored regions in which the decay time scale is outside 0.1%–99.9% range of its values, because very few points skewed the statistics otherwise. The dashed gray line ( , where N is the length of the segment) is shown for guidance. Apart from the error caused by the length of the time series, the shorter segments of the time series reveal interannual- to decadal-scale variability that is larger than the error compared to the long time series (not shown). Assessing

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Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael Palecki, Leslie Ensor, Kenneth G. Hubbard, David Robinson, Kelly Redmond, and David Easterling

for the periods of interest, or focus on one part of the season. The study by Knowles et al. (2006) does map trends to the current decade in the water equivalent of snowfall in the western United States, with their Fig. 3 indicating substantial downward trends in the water equivalent of snowfall in western mountain ranges, but with some increases in the area east of the Rocky Mountains as seen in this study. Annual snowfall generally exhibits greater variability than other elements typically

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M.-I. Pujol, G. Dibarboure, P.-Y. Le Traon, and P. Klein

1. Introduction During the past 20 years, altimeter sea surface height (SSH) measurements have made major contributions to the understanding of the ocean circulation and its variability. While 1D along-track SSH data can observe wavelengths as small as 30–50 km (with a measurement noise of about 2 cm rms), global mesoscale resolution is mainly limited by the large gaps between SSH profiles from altimetry and by the revisit time of each altimeter (e.g., Le Traon and Dibarboure 1999 ; Le Traon

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Nikolai Maximenko, Peter Niiler, Luca Centurioni, Marie-Helene Rio, Oleg Melnichenko, Don Chambers, Victor Zlotnicki, and Boris Galperin

direct ocean velocity observations became available, finer scales of the midocean variability became exposed ( Rudnick 1996 ). This regional sampling of the ocean on the mesoscale, at about 50-km resolution, revealed a very different picture. The midocean became dense with eddies and fronts ( Robinson 1983 ), but the persistence of many of these mesoscale features, because of lack of repeated sampling, could not be determined. Here, we combine new global geophysical datasets and identify many new

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Haidong Pan, Zheng Guo, Yingying Wang, and Xianqing Lv

monthly tide, M m , Ssa, and Sa, respectively. But note that river flows also have strong seasonal and annual variations ( Kukulka and Jay 2003a ). Therefore, these modes are induced by ocean tides and river flows simultaneously. Columbia River flows over the last 140 yr show interannual variability that is strongly related to large-scale climate patterns, principally Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) ( Latif and Barnett 1994 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ). Warm PDO phases bring lower river flow, while cold

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Brian D. Dushaw and Hanne Sagen

southward in the East Greenland Current. The transports of heat and salt between the Atlantic basin and the Arctic Basin by the deep and shallow current systems in Fram Strait are important aspects of ocean circulation, with profound impacts on the ocean’s climate. The details of these current systems are, however, difficult to observe. Not only are the natural scales of variability small at these high latitudes but the powerful current systems have turbulent and recirculating features. These features

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Christopher Sabine, Adrienne Sutton, Kelly McCabe, Noah Lawrence-Slavas, Simone Alin, Richard Feely, Richard Jenkins, Stacy Maenner, Christian Meinig, Jesse Thomas, Erik van Ooijen, Abe Passmore, and Bronte Tilbrook

, and the utility of these systems in carbon cycle research. Fig . 1. ASVCO 2 system components and sampling paths. 2. Methods a. ASVCO 2 system The ASVCO 2 system is a modified version of the Moored Autonomous p CO 2 (MAPCO 2 ) system developed by PMEL and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which has been used for over a decade on dozens of moored surface buoys around the world ( Sutton et al. 2014 ). The details of the ASVCO 2 design, components (including equilibrator design), gas

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John R. Christy and William B. Norris

of the adjustments on the trend of the composite time series was very small (±0.02 K decade −1 ) in agreement with Parker et al. Thorne et al. (2005) amassed data from about 650 stations (the HadAT2 dataset). A common mean period was established for the stations from which anomalies were generated. Thorne et al. identified discontinuities in each station (the target) by comparing its anomalies with those of a reference series. The reference series was obtained from the nontarget stations whose

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Roy W. Spencer, John R. Christy, William D. Braswell, and William B. Norris

(Q. Fu 2005, personal communication), indicating that interannual variability was the primary source of signal in the radiosonde data. Even though the FJWS profile fit to the 850–300-hPa layer in Fig. 2 is seen to be poor, interlayer correlations in the radiosonde data led to a very high correlation of the fit (0.986) for monthly global anomalies. One of our criticisms (Q. Fu 2005, personal communication) of the FJWS effective weighting function has centered around the existence of

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