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Clifford F. Mass and Mark D. Albright

Cascade Mountains to devastate the area nearEnumclaw,~ Washington (see Fig. 1). Gusts exceeding50 m s-I leveled homes and barns, tore roofs offhundreds of buildings and downed numerous treesand powefiines. Damage was conservatively estimatedin the tens of millions of dollars. Although theEnumclaw area was particularly hard hit, strong butlesser winds also struck several other locations in ornear gaps of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon andWashington. For example, substantial winds anddamage were found

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Pascal J. Mailier, David B. Stephenson, Christopher A. T. Ferro, and Kevin I. Hodges

with particular emphasis on the North Atlantic and European sectors. Section 6 summarizes the main findings and suggests possible future work. 2. Background a. Complete serial randomness A useful statistical tool to model the succession of events such as cyclone occurrences at a particular location is the point process (see Cox and Isham 1980 for a detailed discussion). The simplest hypothesis that can be formulated is that cyclones occur in a completely random fashion (i.e., the occurrence

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Daniel Gombos and James A. Hansen

singular values, w ( HT08 ). However, despite the computational stability of the SVD, multicolinearities due to geographic proximity are likely to render the estimate of 𝗣′ e −1 via (14) ill-conditioned. A singular value spectrum of the data used in section 5 of this paper (not shown) reveals that the retained singular values of 𝗣′ e T 𝗣′ e (and undoubtedly those of other realistic 𝗣′ e T 𝗣′ e matrices) decay to zero, leading to high condition numbers and correspondingly inflated

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Richard C. Igau and John W. Nielsen-Gammon

, including the evolution of these features over Mexico. The relationship of the LLJs to the lee trough and EML is discussed in later sections. The history of air parcels that constitute the EML in this simulation is documented in Lanicci and Warner (1997) . Figure 3 shows a portion of the topography used in the model and the location of vertical sections and geographic regions referred to in later discussions. The terrain varies north to south from the gently sloping plains of the southern United

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Mary M. McGarry and Richard J. Reed

the land stations were combined into four geographically distinct groups and the ship data into asingle group before making the harmonic analyses. The long-term representativeness of the results for theland areas is judged by comparing them with the results obtained from analysis of data presented by Burpee(1976) on the frequencies of occurrence of thunder, moderate to heavy precipitation and light precipitationduring the period June-September 1966-69. The main findings are the following: 1

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Manuel D. Zuluaga and Robert A. Houze Jr.

forms of convection. Since the form taken by convection affects how the convection interacts with the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulation, it is important to understand the varied phenomenology of the convective elements across the region. Fig . 1. Geographical regions referred to in this study. The labeled rectangles are regions of composites referred to in the text. Convection in the regions of the equatorial Africa and neighboring eastern Atlantic has been studied many times in the past

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, at least implicitly, formany years. For example, Walker (1923), in a statisticalinvestigation of the Iong-t,erm variat,ion of the atmosphere,found that there were strong correlations between low-latitude station pairs for various physical parameters. Ageneral review of the many papers of Walker is given byMont,gomeq- (1940). Troup (1965) substantiat,ed thesecorrelations using longer periods of data. These correla-tions and their geographic location strongly suggest aform of atmospheric

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detect significant results to 1) type I error, 2) typeI1 error, and 3) power of the test for various statistical tests and experimental designs. These nomograms were con-structed for various area sizes and geographical locations within the State.Results indicate that, for an Illinois experiment, insurance croploss data are the optimum hail measurement ifthe study area has more than 60 percent insurance coverage. The optimum experimental design is the random-historicaldesign in which all potential

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L. Cucurull, R. Li, and T. R. Peevey

nature run for July–August 2005 by the NOAA OSSE team, using geographical locations from July to August 2012 for the conventional and satellite data to enable simulation of satellite sensors launched after 2005. Realistic orbits were used to simulate COSMIC-2 soundings of refractivity with the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) constellations, and using the forward operator described in Cucurull (2010) . No systematic or random errors

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Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, and John R. Gyakum

( Hart and Evans 2001 ). The exact location of impact, ranging from southern Ontario to eastern Newfoundland, varies based on several factors (e.g., season, sea surface temperature, track, and synoptic situation). In 2005, the remnants of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were responsible for a significant percentage of the total monthly precipitation throughout a large portion of the St. Lawrence River Valley and eastern Canada. For example, 55% (73 mm) of the total August 2005 precipitation at Montreal

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