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Lawrence C. Hamilton

. , Stewart T. G. , and Evans D. J. A. , 2008 : A millennial-scale record of Arctic Ocean sea ice variability and the demise of the Ellesmere Island ice shelves . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L19502 , doi:10.1029/2008GL034470 . Gerlach, T. , 2011 : Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide . Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 92 , 201 – 208 . Hamilton, L. C. , 2008 : Who cares about polar regions? Results from a survey of U.S. public opinion . Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. , 40 , 671

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Peter N. Peregrine

-019-02380-2 . 10.1007/s10584-019-02380-2 Harrington , J. , and M. Gelfand , 2014 : Tightness–looseness across the 50 United States . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 111 , 7990 – 7995 , . 10.1073/pnas.1317937111 Holling , C. S. , L. Gunderson , and G. Peterson , 2002 : Sustainability and panarchy. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems , L. Gunderson and C. S. Holling, Eds., Island Press, 63–102 . Horney , J. , D

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Saeideh Maleki, Saeid Soltani Koupaei, Alireza Soffianian, Sassan Saatchi, Saeid Pourmanafi, and Vahid Rahdari

, 893 – 903 , . 10.1016/j.rse.2009.01.007 Chen , X. , H. Zhao , P. Li , and Z. Yin , 2006 : Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and land use/cover changes . Remote Sens. Environ. , 104 , 133 – 146 , . 10.1016/j.rse.2005.11.016 Dahmardeh , M. , M. Dahmardeh , S. Yazdani , and E. Piri , 2009 : The socio-economic effects of Hamoon Lake in Sistan region of

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

.1002/2016GL070375 Zhang , D.-L. , Y.-X. Shou , R. R. Dickerson , and F. Chen , 2011 : Impact of upstream urbanization on the urban heat island effects along the Washington–Baltimore corridor . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 2012 – 2029 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05008.1

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Frauke Hoss and Paul Fischbeck

survey among farmers by to Hu et al. (2006) and Artikov et al. (2006) . Furthermore, questions to assess numeracy on the subjective numeracy scale as constructed by Fagerlin et al. (2007) were added to the survey. The complete questionnaire is available in the online supplemental material ( section A ). To account for the diversity of natural hazards in a large country like the United States, six hazards were included in the study: flash flooding, river flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, heat

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Hannah R. Torres, Kamal A. Alsharif, and Graham A. Tobin

incentives from insurance companies to flood-proof or otherwise retrofit one’s home to reduce risk. Modifications that could reduce insurance rates were perceived as too costly to be worth it. When participants were asked what aspects of climate change and sea level rise most concerned them, some expressed general concerns, like the disappearance of low-lying island nations and the increased rate at which the Greenland ice sheet is melting. However, most concerns were framed on a personal scale and these

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Adrienne Marshall, Van Butsic, and John Harte

decrease in 1 May SWE, visitation advanced by 5.0 days. Increases in total annual flow had a small but significant effect, where a 10% increase in annual Q relative to the long-term mean was associated with a 0.6–1-day delay in visitation. Warmer temperatures were associated with earlier visitation in all seasons, though the effect size was much stronger for spring (MAM) and summer (JJA) temperatures than for fall (SON) and winter (DJF) temperatures. Fig . 4. Heat map of regression results for each

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Iván J. Ramírez, Sue C. Grady, and Michael H. Glantz

heat content to represent El Niño, the authors showed that the distribution of index cases of cholera followed a pattern along the west coast of South America, similar to the oceanic parameters. Coincidently, this pattern also resembled locations where cholera was first identified in 1990/91, according to Seas et al. (2000) . This was the first study to demonstrate how vibrios and their reservoirs may have traveled via ocean waves and upon arrival (i.e., against the continental boundary) dispersed

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Scott Bremer, Anne Blanchard, Nabir Mamnun, Mathew Stiller-Reeve, Md. Mahfujul Haque, and Endre Tvinnereim

experience and narrative inquiry . Educ. Res. , 19 , 2 – 14 , doi: 10.3102/0013189X019005002 . 10.3102/0013189X019005002 Corburn , J. , 2009 : Cities, climate change and urban heat island mitigation: Localising global environmental science . Urban Stud. , 46 , 413 – 427 , doi: 10.1177/0042098008099361 . 10.1177/0042098008099361 Czarniawska , B. , 2004 : Narratives in Social Science Research . SAGE, 157 pp. 10.4135/9781849209502 Daniels , S. , and G. H. Endfield , 2009 : Narratives of

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

. (left) The original image of a National Hurricane forecast graphic for Hurricane Irma. (right) The same image with a visual saliency heat map overlaid; the darker red parts of the heat map predict higher visual saliency, or the tendency of the human eye to be attracted to that part of the image. It is clear that how forecast graphics are presented is important to adequately informing the public of hurricane threat ( Sherman-Morris 2005 ). The ways that people misinterpret the graphic suggest a

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