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Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Gary Meyers, Erik Behrens, Arne Biastoch, and Claus W. Böning

( Kessler 2002 ). The latter enables an earlier transmission of the signal to the eastern Indian Ocean in the year and thus a larger remote contribution to high eIO heat content events than during low ones. Given the role of the Pacific for high heat contents in the eastern Indian Ocean, decadal variations in the thermocline of the western tropical Pacific are of interest: corals off the island of Palau, at 7°N and 134°E within the region of high heat content in the western Pacific during high eIO

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Kevin J. Rennert, Gerard Roe, Jaakko Putkonen, and Cecilia M. Bitz

snow (ROS) events represent a different type of extreme event in the Arctic that can have equal or even greater impact on the physical and ecological systems. The ROS event itself is typically short lived (order of days), but the effects on the ecosystem (herd decline) and soil temperatures may last for years. Rainwater carries latent heat that heats snow and the underlying soil as it freezes within the snowpack or at the soil surface. In turn, the frozen layers within the snowpack can affect the

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Yosef Ashkenazy and Eli Tziperman

variability issues that are the focus of the present work. A13 and A14 studied the combined effect of geothermal heat flux and a thick ice cover and analyzed the coupled steady ice flow and ocean circulation problem. They showed that the ocean under hard snowball conditions is highly dynamic and exhibits vigorous horizontal and meridional circulation, mainly driven by the very weak geothermal heating and, to a lesser extent, by the equator-to-pole gradient of atmospheric temperature at the top of the

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Kenneth E. Kunkel, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Jinhong Zhu

1. Introduction Heat waves can have notable adverse effects on human health during the summer season in the United States. For example, heat waves in 1995 and 1999 resulted in 739 and 110 excess deaths, respectively, in Chicago, Illinois, alone ( Whitman et al. 1997 ; Palecki et al. 2001 ). During such events, residents in urban centers may be particularly at risk because of such factors as elevated temperatures from the urban heat island effect, poverty, a generally older population often

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Mikhail Verbitsky

Antarctic ice streams and fast moving glaciers. For example, we can easily identify Pine Island and the Thwaites Glaciers of West Antarctica, glaciers of the Transantarctic Mountains, as well as the Ninnis, Mertz, and Lambert glaciers of East Antarctica. We also found that the solution for the basal temperature field of the West Antarctic Siple Coast reproduced areas at the pressure-melting point separated by frozen-to-bed ice, the structure of which is indicative of ice streams A–E. In the following

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Elena A. Tsvetsinskaya, Linda O. Mearns, and William E. Easterling

most difficult problems in constructing land surface schemes ( Sellers 1992 ). To investigate the sensitivity of BATS-simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes to changes in Leaf Area Index, we conducted four sets of experiments (see Table 4 ). In each of these experiments, BATS was driven with the actual weather data observed by an AWDN station located in Grand Island, Nebraska. The same three years were considered: 1988 (a dry year), 1993 (a year of higher than normal precipitation), and 1995 (a

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Shinsuke Iwasaki, Atsuhiko Isobe, and Shin’ichiro Kako

). However, in the offshore area (24°–28°N, 121°–125°E), the surface heat flux difference is inconsistent with that of SST ( Figs. 4c,f ). This is likely because the surface heat flux difference is insufficient to cause the SST difference, as the ocean in that area is deeper than that of the coastal area. Unlike the areas along the Chinese coast, decreasing wind speeds in the coupled model are not remarkable along the coasts of the Japanese islands, Korean Peninsula, and Taiwan Island. Fig . 6. (a

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John M. Toole, Huai-Min Zhang, and Michael J. Caruso

open circles). Subdivision of the Indo-Pacific pool into its Pacific and Indian components was done along the Indonesian island arc. The time labels indicate the start of each month. (b) The pool-averaged temperature for the two subbasins and the Indo-Pacific pool. (c) Monthly estimates of net air pool heat flux, based on the SOC climatology ( Josey et al. 1998 , x's), the time rate of change of pool energy content (open circles), the estimated penetrative short-wave energy flux across the pool

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Lutz Hasse and Stuart D. Smith

parameterization for shortwave radiation under clear and cloudy skies was taken from Malevsky et al. (1992) , based on a large set of oceanic observations, instead of from Reed (1977) , which was based on coastal and island stations. Malevsky et al. also have the advantageof modeling variations of atmospheric transmission (see Gulev 1995 for details of their methods). The transfer coefficients for latent heat fluxes C E were taken from Isemer and Hasse (1987 , their Table 4), and C H was taken to be 0

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Kyla Drushka, Janet Sprintall, Sarah T. Gille, and Susan Wijffels

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is a system of large-scale coupled patterns of atmospheric convection and winds that originate in the western tropical Indian Ocean, propagate eastward along the equator, and eventually die out in the eastern Pacific Ocean ( Madden and Julian 1972 ). Atmospheric MJO forcing exerts a profound influence on the mixed layer of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans through anomalous fluxes of heat, precipitation, and momentum (e.g., Hendon and

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