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Fiona Paumgarten, Bruno Locatelli, and Ed T. F. Witkowski

most households display some level of dependence on land-based livelihoods and natural resources. Willingness to participate in the research was another influencing factor. Households in both sites engage in arable agriculture, animal husbandry, and the use and sale of nontimber forest products (NTFPs). Arable agriculture is more prevalent in the wet site. According to respondents, there are constraints to these land-based livelihoods including seasonality, climate hazards, pests and diseases

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A. Bonazzi, A. L. Dobbin, J. K. Turner, P. S. Wilson, C. Mitas, and E. Bellone

simulations to train statistical models of tropical cyclone intensity over land . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 138 , 2058 – 2073 . Cook, N. , 2011 : Comments on “Plotting Positions in Extreme Value Analysis.” J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 255 – 266 . Darling, R. W. R. , 1991 : Estimating probabilities of hurricane wind speeds using a large-scale empirical model . J. Climate , 4 , 1035 – 1046 . Delworth, T. L. , and Mann M. E. , 2000 : Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the

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Gigi Owen, Jonathan D. McLeod, Crystal A. Kolden, Daniel B. Ferguson, and Timothy J. Brown

in terms of number of acres burned; approximately 981 000 acres in Arizona and just under 1 255 000 acres in New Mexico burned in 2011 ( Southwest Coordination Center 2011b ). While it would be impossible to count how many lives, land acres, or resources were saved by using climate forecasts in preseason planning, forecasts played a visible role in early season planning processes and management responses during the 2011 fire season. Results from this study help illuminate the role of climate

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Steve Rayner

production. The 2004 Natural Resource Management Act established the basis for controls of almost all water abstraction and use throughout South Australia. The act separates agricultural water rights from land ownership and gives the Minister of Water, Environment and Natural Resources, in consultation with the community, the power to “prescribe” any surface water (farm dams), creeks, rivers, and groundwater aquifers. Once prescribed, any water taken for consumptive (i.e., nonenvironmental) purposes

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Auwal F. Abdussalam, Andrew J. Monaghan, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Vanja M. Dukic, Mary H. Hayden, Thomas M. Hopson, John E. Thornes, and Gregor C. Leckebusch

dustiness may change little, all else being equal (e.g., Shao et al. 2011 ). On the other hand, land use may change dramatically in the future; for example, widespread irrigated agriculture may become established in the region, which may reduce the number of dusty days (e.g., Cowie et al. 2013 ), or conversely overgrazing could lead to dustier conditions. Fig . 5. Similar to the middle panels of Fig. 4 for the RCP6.0 projections of meningitis cases, but with the number of dusty days (top) increased

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Manishka De Mel, William Solecki, Radley Horton, Ryan Bartlett, Abigail Hehmeyer, Shaun Martin, and Cynthia Rosenzweig

, that were designed to enhance opportunities for local climate change adaptation, conservation, and natural resource management. The survey is focused on addressing stakeholders’ understanding of climate risk. More specifically, the paper seeks to define the following: 1) What do conservation stakeholders consider to be the most significant climate risks they face now and possibly in the future? 2) What have been the most significant barriers to their using climate risk information? 3) What sources

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Jianxin Cui, Hong Chang, Kaiyue Cheng, and George S. Burr

not provided a clear and comprehensive picture of desertification of this region during the Ming dynasty. We attempt to improve on this aspect of the research by compiling all available historical data on desertification and land use, with as much detail as sources permit. With this historical perspective, we reconstruct the regional desertification process at both temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the potential climatic drivers of desertification are analyzed here. To date, little

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Coleen Vogel, Ingrid Koch, and Koos Van Zyl

). Singular drought governance efforts, usually focused in a single department (e.g., agriculture), are therefore encouraged to be more transversal in design, cutting across and including key implementing agencies, such as those involved with social and economic development, primary health care, land use planning, environmental management, and infrastructure (including housing; e.g., Government of South Africa 2002 ). An emergency response mode of operation, while still required in severe cases, is

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Neda Kazemi, Maryam Sharifzadeh, and Mostafa Ahmadvand

amount of fertilizers, poisons, and pesticides; income; costs; and land tenure system. Table 1 presents a summary of different scales related to the development of the questionnaire for this research. Table 2 provides the reliability and validity values. 1 In this study, analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21. Table 1. Scales for measuring determinants of frost-protection behavior among walnut orchardists. Table 2. Measurement model: validity and reliability. Two items from “Ease of

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Brent Boehlert, Ellen Fitzgerald, James E. Neumann, Kenneth M. Strzepek, and Jeremy Martinich

output rather than 1982 output. 20 Using the U.S. population projections described in Paltsev et al. (2015) , the Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS; Bierwagen et al. 2010 ) model was applied to generate county-level population projections at 5-yr time steps between 2000 and 2100. 21 Present values are constructed by building a piecewise linear time series of average annual effects in 2005 dollars, discounting that series at 3% (2005$), and then summing the result. The piecewise

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