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David A. Rahn, Thomas R. Parish, and David Leon

perturbations display a Bernoulli relationship. Sharp perturbations at the top of the MBL manifested and were fairly stationary near the pronounced MBL height change. Downwind of Point Conception and tied to the near collapse of the MBL, there is transport of continental aerosol that is inferred from the lidar depolarization and in situ UWKA measurements of number concentration. Observations also reveal a deep layer lingering within the Santa Barbara Channel that is not as cool as that north of Point

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Huaqing Cai, Wen-Chau Lee, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Cyrille Flamant, and Hanne V. Murphey

as surface mesonets, mobile soundings, aircraft in situ measurements (e.g., Ziegler and Hane 1993 ; Hane et al. 1993 , 1997 , 2001 , 2002 ), Doppler lidar ( Parsons et al. 1991 ), and airborne Doppler radar with clear-air capability ( Atkins et al. 1998 ; Weiss and Bluestein 2002 ). Although drylines are favorable places for convection initiation, not every dryline initiates storms. There have been a few hypotheses trying to explain why convection does not initiate even though the dryline

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Samuel K. Degelia, Xuguang Wang, David J. Stensrud, and David D. Turner

-scale NWP. Recent field campaigns have employed both thermodynamic and kinematic remote sensing profilers to evaluate their potential impact for NWP systems, including the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI; Feltz et al. 2003 ; Turner and Löhnert 2014 ), radar wind profilers (RWPs; Ecklund et al. 1988 ), and Doppler lidars ( Menzies and Hardesty 1989 ). AERIs retrieve thermodynamic profiles from observations of downwelling infrared radiance ( Turner and Löhnert 2014 ) and have been

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X. Zheng, S. A. Klein, V. P. Ghate, S. Santos, J. McGibbon, P. Caldwell, P. Bogenschutz, W. Lin, and M. P. Cadeddu

Sc regime and precipitation is a significant component for the PBL moisture budget ( Rémillard et al. 2012 ; Wood et al. 2016 ). By combining Doppler radar and backscatter lidar observations to more accurately estimate the size distribution and flux of precipitation below cloud, ARM provides a drizzle retrieval that serves as a comprehensive observational reference to evaluate the precipitation processes for marine Sc in GCMs ( O’Connor et al. 2005 ). ARM drizzle and turbulence retrievals from

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Andrew L. Molthan and Brian A. Colle

during the Canadian CloudSat/Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP). Although precipitation rates were comparable to observations, comparisons for C- and W-band radar reflectivity suggested a bias toward higher reflectivities aloft ( Shi et al. 2010 ). Molthan et al. (2010) evaluated the synoptic-scale snowfall event examined by Shi et al. (2010) and determined that the GCE scheme might be improved upon further by incorporating

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Richard M. Forbes and Maike Ahlgrimm

mixed-phase Arctic cloud case study, the impact on low cloud decks over the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude ocean using CloudSat / Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite data, and the impact on near-surface temperatures over land in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The conclusions are given in section 5 . 2. ECMWF model representation of supercooled liquid water cloud The cloud parameterization in the ECMWF global IFS is based on Tiedtke

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Thomas R. Parish, David A. Rahn, and Dave Leon

1. Introduction Winds in the summertime atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL) off the California coast (see Fig. 1 for a map of key geographical features and station locations) develop as a result of the horizontal pressure field set up by the Pacific high situated several hundred kilometers to the west of the coast and the thermal low over the desert southwest. Subsidence above the Pacific high establishes a temperature inversion at the top of the well-mixed MBL. Observations have shown

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Nicholas T. Luchetti, Katja Friedrich, Christopher E. Rodell, and Julie K. Lundquist

sensor and relative humidity are available at 3, 26, and 88 m AGL. All M-4 tower instruments sample at 20 Hz averaged to 1-min output ( Clifton et al. 2013 ; Clifton 2014 ). To avoid tower-wake impacts ( Clifton 2014 ), we only consider winds between 25° and 100° and 175° and 300°; we removed one event at the NWTC. c. Description of remote sensing research instruments In addition to tower observations, both sites use a Radiometrics MWR-3000A microwave radiometer and Leosphere/NRG WindCube lidars. A

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Hanne V. Murphey, Cyrille Flamant, Janine Goldstein, and Crystalyne R. Pettet

. Revercomb , 2003 : Near continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 584 – 597 . Ferrare , R. A. , J. L. Schols , E. W. Eloranta , and R. Coulter , 1991 : Lidar observations of banded convection during BLX83. J. Appl. Meteor. , 30 , 312 – 326 . Fovell , R. G. , and P. S. Dailey , 2001 : Numerical simulation of the interaction between the sea-breeze front and

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