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Raquel Niclòs, Vicente Caselles, César Coll, Enric Valor, and Eva Rubio

; Schluessel et al. 1990 ; Smith et al. 1996 ; Wick et al. 1996 ; Wu and Smith 1997 ; Donlon et al. 1998 ) or aircrafts ( Saunders 1967 ; Hagan et al. 1997 ). Some authors have used drifting platforms, such as the Floating Instrument Platform ( FLIP ) used in the California bight by Jessup and Hesany (1996) . In this paper, SST determination is carried out using in situ thermal infrared data measured from an oilrig in the Mediterranean Sea using a CIMEL Electronique CE 312 1 radiometer mounted on an

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Dmitry Yu Mikhin, Oleg A. Godin, Olaf Boebel, and Walter Zenk

interthermocline eddy influence on the acoustic field due to the point source in the ocean. Akust. Zh., 34, 280–284. Newton, S. J., 1989: The sound field disturbance caused by a Mediterranean salt lens. M.S. thesis, Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, BC, Canada. Nof, D., 1991: Lenses generated by intermittent currents. Deep-Sea Res., 38, 325–345. 10.1016/0198-0149(91)90071-M Prater, M. D., and T. B. Sanford, 1994: A meddy off Cape St. Vincent. Part I: Description. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24

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Andrea Storto, Paolo Oddo, Elisa Cozzani, and Emanuel Ferreira Coelho

produced using the atmospheric forecasts from NCEP. The NEMO model is one-way nested with the CMEMS Mediterranean Sea operational model (the Mediterranean Forecasting System; Oddo et al. 2014 ) that provides the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). The satellite level-4 SST product from CMEMS ( Buongiorno Nardelli et al. 2013 ) is ingested into the model through the adjustments of surface heat flux by means of a Newtonian relaxation algorithm. The relaxation coefficient is equal to −60 W m −2 K −1 at

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David McKee, Jacek Piskozub, Rüdiger Röttgers, and Rick A. Reynolds

the Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea) in March 2009 on board the R/V Alliance , and the third in the North Sea in May 2010 on board the R/V Heincke . The HZG ac-9 and SIO backscattering meters were deployed on the Baltic/North Sea cruise along with the LISST instrument, while the UoS ac-9 and BB9 were deployed on the Mediterranean Sea cruise. Both the UoS and HZG ac-9 instruments were deployed on the North Sea 2010 cruise. Profiles of salinity and temperature with depth were obtained from SeaBird

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Xingru Feng, Junchuan Sun, Dezhou Yang, Baoshu Yin, Guandong Gao, and Weiqi Wan

. , 49 , 959 – 981 , . 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0168.1 Varlas , G. , P. Katsafados , A. Papadopoulos , and G. Korres , 2018 : Implementation of a two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean wave modeling system for assessing air-sea interaction over the Mediterranean Sea . Atmos. Res. , 208 , 201 – 217 , . 10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.08.019 Wang , G. , B. Zhao , F. Qiao , and C. Zhao , 2018 : Rapid

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Pinqiang Wang, Weimin Zhang, Huizan Wang, Haijin Dai, and Xiaohui Wang

. Physica D , 237 , 1498 – 1506 , . 10.1016/j.physd.2008.03.023 Taillandier , V. , and A. Griffa , 2006 : Implementation of position assimilation for Argo floats in a realistic Mediterranean Sea OPA model and twin experiment testing . Ocean Sci. , 3 , 255 – 289 , . Taillandier , V. , A. Griffa , P. M. Poulain , and K. Béranger , 2006 : Assimilation of Argo float positions in the north western

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J. Tournadre

1. Introduction Spaceborne radar altimeters have been in use for almost 30 yr. The concepts underlying their operation are well known and have been extensively studied. The radar emits a short electromagnetic pulse, which is reflected by the sea surface. The waveform, that is, the shape and strength of the return echo, is recorded on the satellite. Geophysical parameters of the ocean surface, mainly, the sea surface height, the significant wave height, and the sea surface backscatter, are then

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Pierre Durand, Gabriel Abadie, and Aimé Druilhet

oflocal winds caused by the effect of relief on the flow.One of these winds (the tramontana) was examinedover the Mediterranean Sea. The data used for the calibration of the capacitive device relate to 5 October1990 (flight 14). The general situation was a northsynoptic flow, with the tramontana wind blowing overthe Mediterranean Sea at about 20 m s-~ in the ABL.Over the flight area, the mean sensible heat flux at the~ea surface was about 50 W m-2, the mean latent heatflux 450 W m-2, and the friction

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Joseph W. Lopez and Lakshmi H. Kantha

XBTs and CTDs]. The model also capable of incorporating river runoff. It has bean successfully applied at CU to nowcast/forecasts in the Gulf of Mexico ( Choi et al. 1995 ; Kantha at al. 1999 ), studies in the tropical Pacific ( Clayson 1995 ), the North Indian Ocean ( Lopez 1998 ; Lopez and Kantha 2000 ), and the North Pacific ( Engelhardt 1996 ). The operational versions of it are used at Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) for the Mediterranean Sea ( Horton et al. 1997 ), the Red Sea ( Clifford

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Xiangzhou Song

.1002/jgrc.20246 . 10.1002/jgrc.20246 Song , X. , and L. Yu , 2017 : Air-sea heat flux climatologies in the Mediterranean Sea: Surface energy balance and its consistency with ocean heat storage . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 122 , 4068 – 4087 , . 10.1002/2016JC012254 Tomita , H. , M. Kubota , M. F. Cronin , S. Iwasaki , M. Konda , and H. Ichikawa , 2010 : An assessment of surface heat fluxes from J-OFURO2 at the KEO and JKEO sites . J

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