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H. K. Cigizoglu, M. Bayazit, and B. Önöz

both individual stations and geographical regions in Turkey during the 1930–92 period. They found that climate tended to be warmer in the eastern Anatolia and to be cooler particularly in the Marmara and Mediterranean regions using regional mean temperature series. Türkeş (1996) worked with the area-averaged annual rainfall series during the 1930–93 period and pointed out that decreases were generally observed over Turkey, particularly in the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions. The application

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Ricardo García-Herrera, Emiliano Hernández, David Barriopedro, Daniel Paredes, Ricardo M. Trigo, Isabel Franco Trigo, and Manuel A. Mendes

Europe. Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1571 – 1592 . 10.1002/joc.846 Lloyd-Hughes, B. , and Saunders M. A. , 2002b : Seasonal prediction of European spring precipitation from El Niño–Southern Oscillation and local sea-surface temperatures. Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1 – 14 . 10.1002/joc.723 Maheras, P. , Xoplaki E. , and Kutiel H. , 1999 : Wet and dry monthly anomalies across the Mediterranean basin, and their relationship with circulation, 1860–1990. Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 64 , 189

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Gerhard Smiatek, Severin Kaspar, and Harald Kunstmann

large parts of the Figeh recharge area. An exact limitation of the investigation to the estimated recharge area is not possible with the available model resolution. As a prominent precipitation gradient is observed a very short distance from the Anti-Lebanon ranges to the Syrian Desert, resulting from a greater distance to the major moisture source, the Mediterranean Sea, and rain shadow effects, the model resolution may play a more important role. Investigations of Heckl (2011) and Gao et al

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Eugenio Gorgucci and Luca Baldini

important findings of this study are summarized in section 5 . 2. Dataset The data used in this paper were collected in central Italy during the HyMeX SOP1 that took place from September to November 2012. a. The HyMeX SOP1 in central Italy In the Mediterranean basin, the occurrence of major natural risks related to the water cycle such as intense precipitation and flash flooding is higher during the fall season, when large thermal gradients may occur between a sea that is still warm and the cooler

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Gerhard Smiatek and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction The Jordan River, flowing from the Mount Hermon area to the Dead Sea, is the most important freshwater system in the region, and its water is almost fully used by withdrawal from Lake Kinneret, fed to a large extent from the upper Jordan River (UJR) basin. As the countries in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) region show high rates of growth of population and urbanization, the current scarcity of water is expected to worsen in the future, with the additional pressure on the water

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Francesco Avanzi, Carlo De Michele, Salvatore Gabriele, Antonio Ghezzi, and Renzo Rosso

, together with the vector J . In section 4 , results are reported and discussed. 2. Background and data a. Mean annual precipitation over Italy Italy covers a latitudinal range between ~47° (47.098°, South Tyrol) and ~36°N (36.638°, Sicily; or up to ~35.3° considering Lampedusa) and a longitudinal range between ~7° (6.674°, Piedmont) and ~18°E (18.542°, Salento). The main peninsula is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea on three sides. It is connected to the European continent on the northern side by

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Daisuke Nohara, Akio Kitoh, Masahiro Hosaka, and Taikan Oki

decrease in the future (−21.9% and −13.3%) because of the decrease in precipitation over the Mediterranean region to the Caspian Sea region as indicated in Figs. 3 and 6 . The peak timing in the Columbia River basin shifts about three months earlier due to earlier onset of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountain areas. The future discharge from the Mississippi is similar to that at the present. In the Volga, the discharge increases during the low-water season, but it decreases during the high-water season

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Theodor Bughici, Naftali Lazarovitch, Erick Fredj, and Eran Tas

precision could be achieved. 2. Methodology a. Study area The study area used in this work includes the entire area of Israel, located between the eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea (see Fig. 1 ). The Mediterranean region forms a transitional zone between the midlatitudes of western and central Europe and the arid regions of North Africa and the Middle East, with the inland Mediterranean Sea in between. Israel is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean, influenced by westerlies in the wet

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Alexis Berne, Guy Delrieu, Herve Andrieu, and Jean-Dominique Creutin

perturbations during the autumn season ( Jacq 1994 ; Rivrain 1997 ). These perturbations are generated by upper-level troughs extending from the United Kingdom down to the Iberian Peninsula. These synoptic features lead to the advection of warm and humid air from the Mediterranean Sea toward the coastal regions. The pronounced relief (Pyrénées, Massif Central, and Alps) triggers convection and channels the low-level flows inducing low-level convergence which contributes to the release of convective

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

1. Introduction Snow plays an important role in the hydrologic regime of mountainous catchments. In Mediterranean regions, significant variability in both meteorological variables and topographic features can be found ( Diodato and Bellocchi 2007 ). This adds complexity to the task of monitoring and modeling the evolution of snow distribution, which determines the infiltration–runoff regime and the availability of water during the dry season. Initially, a first approach to studying snowpack

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