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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

.6 ( Durkee et al. 2000b ). However, the global ship track coverage only amounts to 0.002% ( Schreier et al. 2007 ), because formation of persistent ship tracks requires a specific structure of the boundary layer, in which clean background CCN concentrations are present, the cloud layer is thermodynamically and dynamically coupled to the surface, little wind shear is present, and a moisture inversion within specific ranges exists. The advance of satellite observations enabled a global view of the

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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

1. Introduction Cloud feedbacks and processes have been clearly highlighted as a leading source of uncertainty for understanding global climate sensitivity ( IPCC 2007 ). Clouds play fundamental and complex roles in the climate system by redistributing heat and moisture through modulation of atmospheric radiation, latent heating processes, and serving as a critical link in the hydrological cycle. They are affected by aerosol properties, large-scale circulation patterns, interactions with the

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

, S. Klein , R. McCoy , and M. Zhang , 2010 : Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE . J. Climate , 23 , 57 – 79 , doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1 . Zhang , C. , 2005 : Madden–Julian oscillation . Rev. Geophys. , 43 , RG2003 , doi: 10.1029/2004RG000158 . Zhang , M. H. , and J. L. Lin , 1997 : Constrained variational analysis of sounding data based on column-integrated budgets of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum: Approach and

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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

: Comparison of improved Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer CO 2 with HIPPO and SGP aircraft profile measurements . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13 , 3205 – 3225 , doi: 10.5194/acp-13-3205-2013 . Lamb , P. J. , D. H. Portis , and A. Zangvil , 2012 : Investigation of large-scale atmospheric moisture budget and land surface interactions over U.S. Southern Great Plains including for CLASIC (June 2007) . J. Hydrometeor. , 13 , 1719 – 1738 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-01.1 . Larson , V. E. , B. J

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

to water RH w = 100%) will be supersaturated with respect to ice at a rate of about 1% per degree of supercooling ( Fig. 22-1 ; Pruppacher and Klett 2010 ). As a result, ice particles in clouds containing supercooled water grow rapidly to precipitation-sized particles, while supercooled cloud droplets, which are small and nonprecipitating, evaporate to provide the moisture for the growth of ice. This process was first proposed by Alfred Wegener ( Wegener 1911 ), and later explained

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

of the Royal Meteorological Society in January 2011 with 21 contributions nicely represents the breadth of activities including the effects of soil moisture, surface energy budget, convective initiation and enhancement, multiscale interactions, long-range dust transport, aerosol and cloud microphysics, data assimilation, and forecast studies. F ig . 29-12. ARM Mobile Facility deployment in the Murg Valley, Germany. In addition to the complete AMF deployments, ARM–EU collaborations also took

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Ronald B. Smith

seasonal nor does it vary week by week due to weather systems. Instead, it integrates the effect of cold winters and warm summers, variable winds, soil moisture and soil thickness. Both the EL and the tree line influence the atmosphere by modifying the surface albedo, roughness, and evaporation potential. Fig . 20-4. The tree line is visible on this mountain slope, indicating where trees can survive winds, desiccation, and low temperatures. (Photo by Ellen Cieraad.) g. Mountains and atmospheres in the

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

reach the particle phase and also because many of its sources are natural, so they are more difficult to inventory than single-point sources, like power plants. Moreover, the natural sources have high variability and depend strongly on conditions like temperature, light intensity, soil moisture and wind, plant growth cycles, etc. The overall nature of the conversion of atmospheric VOCs to the particle phase is well understood. Reaction of VOCs with atmospheric oxidants such as OH, O 3 , and NO 3

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