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Dan Lubin and D. A. Harper

measured by the AVHRR middle infrared (11 and 12 tzm) channelsare shown to depend on effective cloud temperature, emissivity, ice water path, and effective radius of theparticle size distribution. The usefulness of these dependencies is limited by radiometric uncertainties of up to2 K in brightness temperature and by the fact that the radiative transfer solutions are not single valued over allpossible ranges of temperature, effective radius, and ice water path. Despite these limitations, AVHRR

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Norman G. Loeb, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, David A. Rutan, Wenying Su, Hailan Wang, David R. Doelling, William L. Smith, and Andrew Gettelman

clear-sky sampling by also inferring clear-sky fluxes from the clear portions of CERES footprints with a cloud fraction of up to 95% ( Loeb et al. 2018 ). Method 2 is a model or calculated clear-sky flux over a grid box determined by ignoring clouds in the atmospheric column. It is commonly computed immediately following an all-sky radiative transfer calculation that includes clouds and therefore uses identical properties as the all-sky calculation (e.g., surface temperature, temperature

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R. A. J. Neggers and A. P. Siebesma

, both in amount and in vertical structure. Suppose such a difference will also materialize in multiyear simulations with the SCM at Cabauw. This difference in clouds will affect the radiative transfer through the atmosphere, which should affect the surface downward radiative fluxes. These are part of the surface energy budget, which will affect both the surface temperature and the surface sensible heat flux. Last, this will impact the low-level temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. All main

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John Fasullo and De-Zheng Sun

radiative model and the methodology used are discussed in section 2 . The sensitivity of the mean surface and TOA radiative balance to the distribution of total columnar water vapor is assessed in section 3 . The linearity of sensitivities are also discussed. In section 4 , the sensitivity of the atmosphere's radiative budget to the vertical distribution of water vapor is then assessed. 2. Radiative transfer: Model and methodology The radiative transfer calculation is performed using a 52-level

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J. Li, J. Scinocca, M. Lazare, N. McFarlane, K. von Salzen, and L. Solheim

1. Introduction Solar radiation is the primary energy source for the atmospheric general circulation and the hydrological cycle. The coupling between an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) depends strongly on the radiative energy flow through the earth–atmosphere system. For the radiative energy budget near the surface the shortwave solar energy accounts for most of the heat flux transferred to the ocean. The solar radiation transferred

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N. Hatzianastassiou and I. Vardavas

detail with other studies. 2. The model The deterministic radiative transfer model is described in detail by Vardavas and Koutoulaki (1995) and Hatzianastassiou and Vardavas (1999) . It divides the surface of the Southern Hemisphere into nine zones of 10° latitudinal width having thus a decreasing surface area from equator to pole with varying fractions of land surface area and surface covered by ocean. The incoming solar flux at TOA is computed theoretically. The atmosphere is divided into four

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Yu Gu and K. N. Liou

clouds are an important element in modulating the energy budget of the earth–atmosphere system, the potential effects of cloud geometry and inhomogeneity on the transfer of radiation must be carefully studied to understand their impact on the radiative properties of the atmosphere as well as to perform proper interpretations of radiometric measurements from the ground, the air, and space. Most of the approaches to 3D radiative transfer employ the Monte Carlo method (e.g., Cahalan et al. 1994 ; O

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Kirstie Stramler, Anthony D. Del Genio, and William B. Rossow

Cloud fraction and surface longwave radiative fluxes were obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP; Rossow and Schiffer 1999 ). We chose the ISCCP FD radiative flux profile dataset, as the utilization of a newer radiative transfer model and newer input datasets has greatly reduced uncertainty in the ISCCP FD surface longwave fluxes, from 20–25 to 10–15 W m −2 ( Zhang et al. 2004 ). ISCCP FD is available globally at temporal intervals of 3 h, and at spatial

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Andrew D. Jones, William D. Collins, James Edmonds, Margaret S. Torn, Anthony Janetos, Katherine V. Calvin, Allison Thomson, Louise P. Chini, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoying Shi, Peter Thornton, George C. Hurtt, and Marshall Wise

cover in 2100 is reduced by 52% relative to the standard RCP4.5. Thus, this alternative scenario can be thought of as a hypothetical upper bound on agricultural expansion and an example of the importance of policy design details. In addition to fully coupled climate simulations, we perform a series of offline radiative transfer and offline land model simulations to isolate forcing and feedback mechanisms that contribute to the earth system’s response to land-use change. These simulations allow us to

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Dorian S. Abbot and Itay Halevy

: Radiative transfer in CO 2 -rich paleoatmospheres. J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D18112 . doi:10.1029/2009JD011915 . Hall , K. , 1998 : Rock temperatures and implications for cold region weathering. II: New data from Rothera, Adelaide Island, Antarctica. Permafrost Periglacial Processes , 9 , 47 – 55 . Harrison , S. P. , K. E. Kohfeld , C. Roelandt , and T. Claquin , 2001 : The role of dust in climate changes today, at the Last Glacial Maximum and in the future. Earth Sci. Rev

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