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Nianliang Cheng, Yunting Li, Dawei Zhang, and Fan Meng

) characteristics and causes of regional haze events, 2) techniques for haze weather and air pollution forecasting, 3) new technologies for air pollution monitoring, 4) air pollution causes and environmental and health effects, 5) interactions between air pollution and climate change, 6) urbanization on the atmospheric environment and meteorology, and 7) air quality assurance and air pollution alerts. Prediction of heavy air pollution and its effects on emergency or security measures have drawn much attention

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Amadou Bokoye, Louise Bussières, André Cotnoir, Jacinthe Lacroix, and Luc Vescovi

: Montreal, Quebec, Canada CLIMATE AND SOCIETY. “Society has always had to deal with climate variability, including extreme weather. But the combined effects of climate change, population increase, urbanization, and environmental degradation present new and greater challenges,” said Michel Jarraud, the WMO Secretary-General. Disasters linked to a weather–climate change continuum represent those which most affect human life, goods, and ecosystems across the world. To make a decision about and adapt to

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Min Xu, Xing Yuan, Tiejun Ling, Hyun I. Choi, Feng Zhang, Ligang Chen, Shuyan Liu, Shenjian Su, Fengxue Qiao, Yuxiang He, Julian X. L. Wang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Wei Gao, Everette Joseph, Vernon Morris, Tsann-Wang Yu, Jimy Dudhia, and John Michalakes

. Choi , K. E. Kunkel , L. Rontu , J.-F. Geleyn , M. D. Müller , E. Joseph , and J. X. L. Wang , 2006b : Development of the regional Climate-Weather Research and Forecasting model (CWRF): Treatment of subgrid topography effects . Preprints , Seventh WRF Users' Workshop , Boulder, CO , NCAR , 7.3 . Liang , X.-Z. , M. Xu , K. E. Kunkel , G. A. Grell , and J. Kain , 2007 : Regional climate model simulation of U.S.–Mexico summer precipitation using the optimal

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P. Michael Link, Jürgen Böhner, Hermann Held, and Jürgen Scheffran

trigger local or regional conflicts if neglected. Model simulations indicate that land-use disputes may also arise if large shares of agricultural land are devoted to growing energy crops. Not only does this increase the competition with agricultural food production, but land conversion to expand energy crop production is also likely to have adverse effects on biodiversity in surrounding ecosystems. On the other hand, bioenergy can help to successfully implement the energy transition in small cities

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Michael F. Squires, Jay H. Lawrimore, Richard R. Heim Jr., David A. Robinson, Mathieu R. Gerbush, and Thomas W. Estilow

indices developed to characterize winter storms. Rooney (1967) used newspaper accounts and interviews to estimate the societal impact of snowfall on seven cities in the Midwest and Great Plains. He characterized these impacts as “disruptions” and, in addition to snowfall, included events such as traffic accidents, road closings, school closings, and canceled flights, as well as other negative effects. Call (2005) extended this work by describing disruptions of snowstorms for several locations in

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Toshi Matsui, Charles Ichoku, Cynthia Randles, Tianle Yuan, Arlindo M. da Silva, Peter Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Robert Levy, Andrew Sayer, Mian Chin, David Giles, Brent Holben, Ellsworth Welton, Thomas Eck, and Lorraine Remer

NASA EOS and other U.S. and non-U.S. programs ushered in a golden era in aerosol research. NASA has been a leader in providing global aerosol characterizations through observations from satellites, ground networks, and field campaigns, as well as from global and regional modeling. AeroCenter ( http://aerocenter.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ), which was formed in 2002 to address the many facets of aerosol research in a collaborative manner, is an interdisciplinary union of researchers (~200 members) at NASA GSFC

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Olga Zolina, Clemens Simmer, Alice Kapala, Pavel Shabanov, Paul Becker, Hermann Mächel, Sergey Gulev, and Pavel Groisman

those related to wind effects. The measurement precision of the DWD gauges is 0.1 mm. With the installation of the Pluvio devices in the early 2000s, automatic readings started to replace the manual readings. However, this upgrade did not affect the reading time for daily precipitation sums, which remained at 07:30 local time. Every month, the daily records are transmitted to the regional preprocessing offices for quality checks and thereafter transferred to DWD headquarters at Offenbach, where they

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Assaf Hochman, Pinhas Alpert, Marina Baldi, Edoardo Bucchignani, Erika Coppola, Yara Dahdal, Nadav Davidovitch, Pantelis Georgiades, Sebastian Helgert, Haneen Khreis, Hagai Levine, Stefano Materia, Maya Negev, Ikram Salah, Mohammed Shaheen, and Filippo Giorgi

systems were also a subject of discussion, including underfunding, lack of preparation for dealing with climate-related illnesses, and the adverse effect of regional political conflict (e.g., Lange 2019 ). Since the full effects of climate change on public health are currently not completely understood, recommendations in the public sector are still based on the allocation of resources for preparatory measures that will have a positive effect on public health, irrespective of climate change. These

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N. Voisin, M. Kintner-Meyer, D. Wu, R. Skaggs, T. Fu, T. Zhou, T. Nguyen, and I. Kraucunas

Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Trenberth 1997 ) has a bimodal pattern in the PNW and California and a moving boundary in Northern California ( Dettinger et al. 1998 ). This bimodal climate pattern has already shown potential to require higher north–south power transfers during La Niña events ( Voisin et al. 2006 ). Another notable regional variability pattern is the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ), which has been shown to modulate ENSO effects on water availability and

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T. J. Bracegirdle, N. A. N. Bertler, A. M. Carleton, Q. Ding, C. J. Fogwill, J. C. Fyfe, H. H. Hellmer, A. Y. Karpechko, K. Kusahara, E. Larour, P. A. Mayewski, W. N. Meier, L. M. Polvani, J. L. Russell, S. L. Stevenson, J. Turner, J. M. van Wessem, W. J. van de Berg, and I. Wainer

important consideration is the variety of its uses and applications, ranging, for instance, from hemispheric-scale atmospheric dynamics to regional ice-shelf and ice-sheet processes. Further, the observational data against which models are assessed is often limited in both time and space. Therefore, when assessing multidecadal projections of future change, model evaluation should include consideration of the following factors: i) expert judgment on whether important processes are represented correctly

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