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Hengchun Ye, Steve Ladochy, Daqing Yang, Tingjun Zhang, Xuebin Zhang, and Mark Ellison

1. Introduction Three major rivers in Siberia, Russia—the Ob, Yenisei, and Lena—together contribute more than 45% of the total freshwater inflow to the Arctic Ocean ( Shiklomanov et al. 2000 ; Prowse and Flegg 2000 ). The variability of these rivers' discharges significantly affects salinity and sea ice formation and hence global ocean circulation and climate ( Aagaard and Carmack 1989 ). The dynamics of discharge also control the timing and magnitude of flooding and sediment distribution over

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Terence J. Pagano, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, Hengchun Ye, F. Martin Ralph, and Jinwon Kim

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long and narrow pathways of enhanced moisture transport, predominantly originating in the tropics ( American Meteorological Society 2017 ). They carry the majority of the poleward moisture flux across midlatitude regions, despite only occupying approximately 10% of the total longitudinal length at these latitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). When making landfall, ARs are typically associated with heavy precipitation ( Lamjiri et al. 2017 ; Leung and

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Mohammed Ombadi, Phu Nguyen, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Kuo-lin Hsu

1. Introduction The Nile River basin constitutes approximately 10% of the African continent ( Swain 2008 ) extending across eleven countries. A total population of 462 million in these countries is growing at an annual growth rate of 2.5%, faster than the average global growth rate estimated at 1.1%. Consequently, the population of these countries is projected to reach 836 million (81% increase) by the year 2050 ( The World Bank 2018 , 2020 ). A key challenge, therefore, that face these

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Yanan Liang, Yanpeng Cai, Xuan Wang, Chunhui Li, and Qiang Liu

to climate change ( Li et al. 2017 ; Qin et al. 2020 ; Rocha et al. 2020 ; Zhang et al. 2020 ). However, the impact of reservoir impoundment on local climate characteristics and the spatial scope of the impact were less studied. The Yalong River basin (YLRB) ranks as the third-largest hydropower base in China and has become the source of the west-to-east power transmission project. Moreover, typical dry valleys are distributed in YLRB, producing a poor living environment. Whether large

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Harsh L. Shah and Vimal Mishra

. For instance, severity of droughts is projected to increase in many parts of the Indian subcontinental basins under climate change ( Mishra et al. 2014 ). Despite several implications of climate change on water resources in the Indian subcontinent, efforts, so far, have been limited to study changes in surface water availability at regional or river basin scales. Moreover, our understanding on water budget in the subcontinental river basins, which is important for the ambitious projects such as

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Meredith A. Fish, Anna M. Wilson, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction An atmospheric river (AR) is defined as a long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water vapor transport typically associated with an extratropical cyclone ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Guan and Waliser 2017 ; Ralph et al. 2017 ). ARs are the primary mechanism for water vapor transport into the midlatitudes although they cover 10% or less of the globe ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). ARs are characterized by abundant moisture in the lower

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Kristofer Y. Shrestha, Peter J. Webster, and Violeta E. Toma

are routinely provided to Bangladesh authorities out to 10-day lead times ( RIMES 2013 ) by the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Asia and Africa (RIMES), located in Bangkok, Thailand, using methodologies described in Hopson and Webster (2010) , Webster et al. (2010) , and Webster and Jian (2011) . The continuing expansion of settlements and agriculture in the Indus River basin (IRB) floodplain in Pakistan has made it one of the most vulnerable regions to extreme

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Jamie Dyer and Andrew Mercer

1. Introduction Substantial soil and vegetation contrasts exist within the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley (LMRAV) because of extensive deforestation before 1940 ( Fig. 1 ; MacDonald et al. 1979 ), and these regional soil and vegetation boundaries have been shown to influence local rainfall and temperature patterns through modification of the sensible and latent heat fluxes ( Dyer 2011 ; Brown and Wax 2007 ; Raymond et al. 1994 ). This influence has been noted in other areas at

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Viviana Maggioni, Humberto J. Vergara, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Dimitrios Stampoulis

1. Introduction Current runoff prediction systems integrate precipitation measurements into hydrological models that simulate river discharges at the watershed scale either distributed across the basin or as lumped values at the catchment outlet. As observations from rain gauges are nonexistent or sparse over several regions of the globe, remotely sensed rainfall measurements offer a unique and viable alternative source of forcing data for hydrological models (e.g., Su et al. 2008 ; Li et al

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F. Martin Ralph, Jason M. Cordeira, Paul J. Neiman, and Mimi Hughes

1. Introduction The availability and management of water supply in California’s north Central Valley (CV) along the upper Sacramento River is strongly influenced by variability in cool-season precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow in the northern Sierra Nevada and Mt. Shasta–Trinity Alps regions. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and other water managers who seek to gauge water supply, closely monitor the precipitation in this region using daily precipitation totals averaged

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