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Harsh L. Shah and Vimal Mishra

. For instance, severity of droughts is projected to increase in many parts of the Indian subcontinental basins under climate change ( Mishra et al. 2014 ). Despite several implications of climate change on water resources in the Indian subcontinent, efforts, so far, have been limited to study changes in surface water availability at regional or river basin scales. Moreover, our understanding on water budget in the subcontinental river basins, which is important for the ambitious projects such as

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Meredith A. Fish, Anna M. Wilson, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction An atmospheric river (AR) is defined as a long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water vapor transport typically associated with an extratropical cyclone ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Guan and Waliser 2017 ; Ralph et al. 2017 ). ARs are the primary mechanism for water vapor transport into the midlatitudes although they cover 10% or less of the globe ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). ARs are characterized by abundant moisture in the lower

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Kristofer Y. Shrestha, Peter J. Webster, and Violeta E. Toma

are routinely provided to Bangladesh authorities out to 10-day lead times ( RIMES 2013 ) by the Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Asia and Africa (RIMES), located in Bangkok, Thailand, using methodologies described in Hopson and Webster (2010) , Webster et al. (2010) , and Webster and Jian (2011) . The continuing expansion of settlements and agriculture in the Indus River basin (IRB) floodplain in Pakistan has made it one of the most vulnerable regions to extreme

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Jamie Dyer and Andrew Mercer

1. Introduction Substantial soil and vegetation contrasts exist within the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley (LMRAV) because of extensive deforestation before 1940 ( Fig. 1 ; MacDonald et al. 1979 ), and these regional soil and vegetation boundaries have been shown to influence local rainfall and temperature patterns through modification of the sensible and latent heat fluxes ( Dyer 2011 ; Brown and Wax 2007 ; Raymond et al. 1994 ). This influence has been noted in other areas at

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Viviana Maggioni, Humberto J. Vergara, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Dimitrios Stampoulis

1. Introduction Current runoff prediction systems integrate precipitation measurements into hydrological models that simulate river discharges at the watershed scale either distributed across the basin or as lumped values at the catchment outlet. As observations from rain gauges are nonexistent or sparse over several regions of the globe, remotely sensed rainfall measurements offer a unique and viable alternative source of forcing data for hydrological models (e.g., Su et al. 2008 ; Li et al

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F. Martin Ralph, Jason M. Cordeira, Paul J. Neiman, and Mimi Hughes

1. Introduction The availability and management of water supply in California’s north Central Valley (CV) along the upper Sacramento River is strongly influenced by variability in cool-season precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow in the northern Sierra Nevada and Mt. Shasta–Trinity Alps regions. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and other water managers who seek to gauge water supply, closely monitor the precipitation in this region using daily precipitation totals averaged

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H. F. Dacre, O. Martínez-Alvarado, and C. O. Mbengue

cyclone airflows into regions of convergence and ascent and thus to illustrate the relationship between warm conveyor belts and atmospheric rivers. There is some debate in the literature regarding the relationship between warm conveyor belts and atmospheric rivers. To avoid confusion in this paper, we first clarify what we understand by these terms. An atmospheric river is a long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Ralph et al. 2017 ). They are identified using

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Qian Cao, Alexander Gershunov, Tamara Shulgina, F. Martin Ralph, Ning Sun, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for most floods and flood damages along the U.S. West Coast (e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Barth et al. 2017 ; Konrad and Dettinger 2017 ; Corringham et al. 2019 ). Over the past decade, several studies have examined the potential impact of climate change on AR landfalling activity in this region, in order to better project the changes in extreme precipitation associated with ARs. Using seven

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Zachary P. Brodeur and Scott Steinschneider

1. Introduction Water resources management in northern California is uniquely challenging because regional precipitation varies dramatically on both intra and interannual time scales, inducing stark tradeoffs between flood risk reduction and water supply services provided by regional infrastructure. The variability in precipitation is intimately tied to the space–time dynamics of atmospheric rivers (ARs), defined as long, narrow, and transient corridors of strong horizontal integrated water

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Maximiliano Viale, Raúl Valenzuela, René D. Garreaud, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction As first identified by Newell et al. (1992) , atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long and narrow corridors of strong water vapor transport usually located ahead of cold fronts over the oceans. As a result, ARs are identified as synoptic-scale transient flow features linked to extratropical cyclones that tend to occur in storm tracks ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ). Aircraft-based observations across cold fronts over the northeast Pacific, combined with new satellite measurements of

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