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Femke C. Vossepoel and David W. Behringer

discrepancy appears to be related to the relatively fresh conditions in the western Pacific. In these experiments the introduction of T/P observations into the assimilation has improved the model sea level, but has degraded the model temperature field. Ji et al. conclude that this is the result of the assimilation system applying the wrong correction to temperature to compensate for an inaccurate representation of salinity in the model. This conclusion is supported by the work of Maes (1998) who showed

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Sunke Schmidt and Uwe Send

1. Introduction The Labrador Sea plays an important role in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and is a region with pronounced thermal and haline variability on interannual time scales ( Lab Sea Group 1998 ). Temperature, as well as salinity, also has a strong seasonal cycle. Different sources and mechanisms have been suggested for the origin of these interannual and seasonal variabilities. They vary from local sources and sinks, Hudson Bay outflow, Baffin Bay waters, and Canadian

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Masachika Masujima and Ichiro Yasuda

1. Introduction North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is defined as water with a vertical salinity minimum in the densities between 26.6 and 26.9 σ θ at 300–800-m depth, including the water around the salinity minimum (e.g., Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ), and is widely distributed in the North Pacific subtropical region ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ; Hasunuma 1978 ; Talley 1993 ). The low salinity source forming the salinity minimum of NPIW has been recognized as water from

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NOTICE TO OCEANOGRAPHERSA Practical Salinity Scale At the ninth meeting of the Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables andStandards held in Paris, 11- 13 September 1978, the"practical salinity scale (1978)" was recommendedfor adoption by the parent organizations. Detailsmay be found in Unesco (1978) and Unesco (1979). A new salinity scale is needed so that all institutions using conductivity-temperature-depth(CTD) instruments shall be able to report their observations

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Sonya Legg and James C. McWilliams

= g (1 − ρ / ρ 0 ), (1) where g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ is the density, and ρ 0 is a mean reference density, since b is the relevant scalar variable for the gravitational force. However, in seawater buoyancy is a function of both temperature T and salinity S, which are the fundamental material properties related to air–sea heat and water exchanges and thus climate variability. Our focus in this paper is on distinguishing the behaviors of T and S from that of b

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Max Yaremchuk, Julian McCreary Jr., Zuojun Yu, and Ryo Furue

deep Mindoro Strait, almost all of the water for the Indonesian Throughflow entered the Indonesian Seas through the Mindoro Strait, rather than from near the equator (R. Furue 2006, personal communication). Based on climatological data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001 ( WOA01 ) ( Conkright et al. 2002 ), a prominent feature of the SCS is a subsurface salinity maximum at a depth of 150–200 m ( Fig. 2 ; thin dashed curve), which results from the presence of North Pacific tropical water (NPTW) within

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Tao Wang and W. Rockwell Geyer

). Therefore, the mixing of salinity is an essential ingredient of exchange flow. Before examining in detail the relationship between exchange flow and mixing of salinity, it is important to establish a clear, quantitative definition of “mixing of salinity.” In the ocean turbulence community, the mixing of a tracer is defined by the tracer variance dissipation rate ( Osborn and Cox 1972 ; Stern 1968 ; Nash and Moum 1999 ). This quantity was used by Burchard et al. (2009) to quantify the mixing of

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Yang Yu, Shu-Hua Chen, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xinyu Guo, Jie Shi, Guangliang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yi Xu, and Huiwang Gao

et al. 2005 ) and thus reduces SST ( Price et al. 1986 ). Through the nonlinear oceanic adjustment process, the diurnal SST relates to the seasonal and intraseasonal SST variabilities, which are called the “diurnal effects” in some studies. Recently, the impacts of diurnal forcing on sea surface salinity (SSS) have drawn considerable attention. The diurnal cycle of salinity may influence upper ocean stratification ( Lukas and Lindstrom 1991 ; Montégut et al. 2007 ), which in turn affects SST and

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Trevor J. McDougall and David R. Jackett

1. Introduction Oceanographers traditionally study water masses on the salinity–potential temperature diagram because source waters can often be identified on this diagram and turbulent mixing processes are assumed to occur along straight lines (since both salinity and potential temperature are usually assumed to be conservative). For example, Iselin (1939) noted the similarity between the S – θ structure of the surface water in late winter to the S – θ curve obtained from vertical casts

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Parker MacCready, W. Rockwell Geyer, and Hans Burchard

entering the estuary whose salinity is altered by mixing before exiting. Recent research has shown that the physics driving the exchange flow can have surprising complexity ( Geyer and MacCready 2014 ) with the momentum input of tides or wind being important. However, from the earliest analyses ( Knudsen 1900 ; Pritchard 1954 ; Hansen and Rattray 1965 ; Chatwin 1976 ; Walin 1977 ) onward it has been clear that the creation of mixed water is of central importance. This is most clearly evident in the

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