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M. Susan Lozier and Laurie Sindlinger

1. Introduction Surface waters of the eastern North Atlantic that flow into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar are subject to an excess of evaporation over precipitation in this enclosed sea, making them more saline and dense before they exit the strait and return to the North Atlantic. After exiting the strait, these return waters mix with the surrounding waters in the Gulf of Cadiz ( Baringer and Price 1997 ) to produce a water mass known as Mediterranean Overflow Water

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Julie Alexander and Adam H. Monahan

model was used to study climate feedbacks after a major disruption of the THC. In this study, the THC was made to collapse by applying strong freshwater forcing to the top layers of the North Atlantic. After about 100 yr, the model’s THC had largely recovered and most climatic anomalies had disappeared. The rapid growth of perturbations in a system is of considerable theoretical interest because it may be a precursor to a large-scale event. Finding the spatial structure of the optimal salinity and

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NOTICE TO OCEANOGRAPHERSA Practical Salinity Scale At the ninth meeting of the Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables andStandards held in Paris, 11- 13 September 1978, the"practical salinity scale (1978)" was recommendedfor adoption by the parent organizations. Detailsmay be found in Unesco (1978) and Unesco (1979). A new salinity scale is needed so that all institutions using conductivity-temperature-depth(CTD) instruments shall be able to report their observations

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Sonya Legg and James C. McWilliams

= g (1 − ρ / ρ 0 ), (1) where g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ is the density, and ρ 0 is a mean reference density, since b is the relevant scalar variable for the gravitational force. However, in seawater buoyancy is a function of both temperature T and salinity S, which are the fundamental material properties related to air–sea heat and water exchanges and thus climate variability. Our focus in this paper is on distinguishing the behaviors of T and S from that of b

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Sunke Schmidt and Uwe Send

1. Introduction The Labrador Sea plays an important role in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and is a region with pronounced thermal and haline variability on interannual time scales ( Lab Sea Group 1998 ). Temperature, as well as salinity, also has a strong seasonal cycle. Different sources and mechanisms have been suggested for the origin of these interannual and seasonal variabilities. They vary from local sources and sinks, Hudson Bay outflow, Baffin Bay waters, and Canadian

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Yang Yu, Shu-Hua Chen, Yu-Heng Tseng, Xinyu Guo, Jie Shi, Guangliang Liu, Chao Zhang, Yi Xu, and Huiwang Gao

et al. 2005 ) and thus reduces SST ( Price et al. 1986 ). Through the nonlinear oceanic adjustment process, the diurnal SST relates to the seasonal and intraseasonal SST variabilities, which are called the “diurnal effects” in some studies. Recently, the impacts of diurnal forcing on sea surface salinity (SSS) have drawn considerable attention. The diurnal cycle of salinity may influence upper ocean stratification ( Lukas and Lindstrom 1991 ; Montégut et al. 2007 ), which in turn affects SST and

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Tao Wang and W. Rockwell Geyer

). Therefore, the mixing of salinity is an essential ingredient of exchange flow. Before examining in detail the relationship between exchange flow and mixing of salinity, it is important to establish a clear, quantitative definition of “mixing of salinity.” In the ocean turbulence community, the mixing of a tracer is defined by the tracer variance dissipation rate ( Osborn and Cox 1972 ; Stern 1968 ; Nash and Moum 1999 ). This quantity was used by Burchard et al. (2009) to quantify the mixing of

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Masachika Masujima and Ichiro Yasuda

1. Introduction North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) is defined as water with a vertical salinity minimum in the densities between 26.6 and 26.9 σ θ at 300–800-m depth, including the water around the salinity minimum (e.g., Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ), and is widely distributed in the North Pacific subtropical region ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Reid 1965 ; Hasunuma 1978 ; Talley 1993 ). The low salinity source forming the salinity minimum of NPIW has been recognized as water from

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Parker MacCready, W. Rockwell Geyer, and Hans Burchard

entering the estuary whose salinity is altered by mixing before exiting. Recent research has shown that the physics driving the exchange flow can have surprising complexity ( Geyer and MacCready 2014 ) with the momentum input of tides or wind being important. However, from the earliest analyses ( Knudsen 1900 ; Pritchard 1954 ; Hansen and Rattray 1965 ; Chatwin 1976 ; Walin 1977 ) onward it has been clear that the creation of mixed water is of central importance. This is most clearly evident in the

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Yuzhu You

2778 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUMI~ 2~Salinity Variability and Its Role in the Barrier-Layer Formation during TOGA-COARE Ytrz~ro Yot~School of Earth Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia(Manuscript received 29 July 1994, in final form 8 May 1995)ABSTRACT During the intensive observation period of TOGA-COARE between November 1992 and

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