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Syukuro Manabe, Douglas G. Hahn, and J. Leith Holloway Jr.

J^su~a-1974 S. MANABE, D. G. HAHN AND J. L. HOLLOWAY, JR. 43The Seasonal Variation of the Tropical Circulation as Simulated by a Global Model of the AtmosphereSYUKURO MANABE, DOUGLAS G. HAHN AND J. LEITH HOLLOWAY, J~.Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. 08540(Manuscript received 16 July 1973)ABSTRACT A mathematical model of the atmosphere with a

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Frédéric Hourdin, Phu Le Van, François Forget, and Olivier Talagrand

I NOVEMBER 1993 HOURDIN ET AL. 3625Meteorological Variability and the Annual Surface Pressure Cycle on MarsFR]~D~RIC HOURDIN, PHU LE VAN, FRANCOIS FORGET, AND OLIVIER TALAGRANDLaboratoire de M~tdorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Ecole Normale Supdrieure, Paris, France(Manuscript received 17 September 1992, in final form 22 March 1993)ABSTRACT It is commonly admitted that the seasonal

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A. H. Manson, J. B. Gregory, C. E. Meek, and D. G. Stephenson

behavior of the daffy noon winds at 52-N, 107- W(Saskatoon, Canada) at altitudes from 52 km toabout 110 km are studied for theinterval September 1974-April 1975. These data are compared with ROCOBtemperatures and winds (~55 kin) for Churchill (94-N, 59-W). The thermal wind equation and runningcross-correlation analysis are used to demonstrate the seasonal variations of the meridional temperaturegradient, and of coupling, within the stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. The effects of the

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Courtney Schumacher, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Ian Kraucunas

averaged rain accumulation observed by the TRMM PR during 1998–2000 is depicted in Fig. 1a . As observed in other rain climatologies, precipitation amounts are highest (>2.5 m yr −1 ) over central Africa, the Maritime Continent, and Central and South America, and well-defined intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ) are located in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 5°–10°N. In order to focus on the latent heating associated with tropical convection and eliminate edge effects at the boundaries of

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Robert D. Elliott and Theodore B. Smith

VOL. 6, NO. 2 JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY APRIL 1949A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LARGE BLOCKING HIGHS ON HEMISPHERE WESTERLIESTHE GENERAL CIRCULATION IN THE NORTHERNBy Robert D. Elliott and Theodore B. Smith California Institute of Technology' (Manuscript received 2 August 1948)ABSTRACTThe basic problems involved in the investigation of the effects of "blocking action" upon the circulationpattern of the northern-hemisphere westerlies are defined and the mode of attack outlined. By

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Kenneth P. Bowman and Gordon D. Carrie

1. Introduction Human activities are having increasing effects on the global atmosphere. Understanding and predicting the effects of anthropogenic substances released into the atmosphere will require understanding the interrelated roles of transport, radiation, and chemistry. Most man-made substances added to the atmosphere are present in small concentrations and have little direct effect on atmospheric motions. It is often useful, therefore, to treat these substances as though they are

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Douglas G. Hahn and Syukuro Manabe

tropical circulation as simulated by a global model of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 43-83.--, and J. L. Holloway, Jr., 1975: The seasonal variation of the hydrologic cycle as simulated by a global model of thee: - atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 1617-1649.--, and T. B. Terpstra, 1974: The effects of mountains on the general circulation of the atmosphere as identified by nu merical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 3-42.Miller, D., 1971: Global Atlas of Relative Cloud Cover 1967

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Richard H. Johnson and Xin Lin

seasonal-mean heating and moistening profiles from one region to another over the warm pool ( Fig. 2 ), even if seasonal-average precipitation is approximately the same, is not recommended (see also Lin and Johnson 1996b ). The shallow cumulus play an important role in moistening the lower troposphere—either counterbalancing (in some cases) the strong drying effects of “dry intrusions” ( Mapes and Zuidema 1996 ; Numaguti et al. 1995 ; Yoneyama and Fujitani 1995 ) or preparing the atmosphere for

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T. N. Krishnamurti, A. Thomas, Anu Simon, and Vinay Kumar

). The range of external parameters that impact the behavior of the summer monsoon rains over India includes the effects of the El Niño ( Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982 ; Krishnakumar et al. 2006 ), the Indian Ocean temperatures expressed by the index called the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) ( Saji et al. 1999 ), the meridional passage of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) waves ( Krishnamurti and Subrahmanyam 1982 ; Sikka and Gadgil 1980 ; Wang and Rui 1990 ), the Himalayan ice cover ( Dickson 1984

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Russell Qualls and Thomas Hopson

application of spatially distributed leaf area index (LAI) values and friction velocities, and seasonal variation ofsolar elevation, for the estimation of the scalar roughness for sensible heat flux based on approximations to analytically derived relationships between these four variables. These scalar roughnesses are then used to estimate spatially and/or temporally distributed sensible heat fluxes at an array of up to 20 surface flux measurement stations by means of remotely sensed surface temperatures

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