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A. Lemonsu, S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, M. Benjamin, G. Morneau, B. Harvey, F. Chagnon, M. Jean, and J. Voogt

snow. During winter and in high-latitude cities, radiation, energy, and water balances can be even more complex because of the presence of snow on roofs, sidewalks, and roadways. For instance, snow cover modifies the albedo and directly affects net radiation. Furthermore, the evolution of temperature and water content of the snowpack also influences the turbulent fluxes. Some hydrological studies have documented the snow in urban environments ( Ho and Valeo 2005 ), as well as urban snowmelt and

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R. M. Welch, S. K. Sengupta, A. K. Goroch, P. Rabindra, N. Rangaraj, and M. S. Navar

Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota(Manuscript received 17 June 1991, in final form 3 October 1991)ABSTRACT Six Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer local area coverage (AVHRR LAC) arctic scenes are classifiedinto ten classes. These include water, solid sea ice, broken sea ice, snow-covered mountains, snow-free land,and five cloud types. Three different classifiers are examined: 1 ) the traditional stepwise discriminant analysis(SDA) method; 2) the feed-forward back

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A. Hogan and M. Ferrick

an estimate of the air temperature and lapse rate in basins where there are few or no observations to support snowmelt analysis for flood forecasting. There are problems in engineering meteorology that require knowledge of frequency and elevation of local inversions. This paper describes the influence of local topography and snow cover on observed winter morning surface air temperature. It proposes some generalizations that may be useful in inferring local air temperature when few meteorological

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Yingtao Ma, Rachel T. Pinker, Margaret M. Wonsick, Chuan Li, and Laura M. Hinkelman

1. Introduction a. Background Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for runoff and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of the surface water in basins of the western United States ( Beniston 2006 ). Factors that affect the rate of snowmelt include incoming shortwave (SW) and longwave radiation; surface albedo; snow emissivity and temperature; sensible, latent, and ground heat fluxes; and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain

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J. Otterman, M-D. Chou, and A. Arking

762JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 23Effects of Nontropical Forest Cover on ClimateJ. OTTERMAN,' M.-D. CHOU AND A. ARKJNGNASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript received 18 October 1983, in final form 27 January 1984)ABSTRACTThe albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation suchas tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitablychosen taiga

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Takeshi Yamazaki

the data analysis, it was shown that in some examples the daytime airtemperature rose above 0-C, even if the ground surface was covered by snow. Moreover, it was found that thenumber of days when the daytime air temperature rose above 0-C was large when the duration of sunshineincreased, However~ the increase was not related to the wind speed. Therefore, the air temperature over snowcover increases durin~ the daytime if the sunshine is strong even under calm conditions (weak advection). Onthe

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Thomas W. Schlatter

perennial snow cover and at its surface are discussed withparticular emphasis on monthly variations in Antarctic snow. Results of a one-year simulation of physicalprocesses in snow are compared with 1958 data at Mirny and Pinnerskaya, Antarctica. The simulationdemonstrates the following: first, solar radiation is effective to a depth of 50 cm or so, but longwave radiation cools the surface alone, causing the "greenhouse" effect first observed in snow at least four decadesago. Highest summertime

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Balachandrudu Narapusetty and Nicole Mölders

. Experimental design Brief description of HTSVS HTSVS ( Kramm et al. 1996 ; Mölders et al. 2003a ; Mölders and Walsh 2004 ) consists of a one-layer canopy model and a multilayer snow and soil model. The canopy model describes the exchanges of momentum, heat, and moisture at the vegetation–soil–atmosphere interface. It considers microscale heterogeneity by a mixture approach; that is, a grid cell can be partly covered by vegetation (e.g., Deardorff 1978 ; Kramm et al. 1996 ). The multilayer snow model

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C. D. Whiteman, T. Haiden, B. Pospichal, S. Eisenbach, and R. Steinacker

investigators, following the reports of extreme minimum temperatures in the largest doline, the Gruenloch basin ( Aigner 1952 ; Schmidt 1930 , 1933 ). Following this early work, Lauscher (1937) investigated the radiation climate of the area, and two tethered-balloon sounding campaigns were conducted in the Gruenloch in 1953 and 1954 ( Sauberer and Dirmhirn 1954 , 1956 ). The first of these tethered-balloon campaigns, conducted in March with wintertime snow cover, found air temperatures as low as −30

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Zhiwei Wu, Hai Lin, and Ted O’Brien

surface air temperature (Ts) exceeds 10°C for 10 consecutive days. Therefore, seasonal prediction of the Ts associated with the GSSWC is practically an issue of predicting when a period of 10 consecutive days with mean Ts reaching 10°C emerges in a year. It has long been recognized that the physical basis of seasonal prediction of climate events lies in coupled mechanisms between atmosphere and low boundary forcing anomalies such as snow cover and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) (e

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