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Guifu Zhang and Richard J. Doviak

beams. The NWRT was developed by a government–university–industry team consisting of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s NSSL, the Tri-Agencies’ (Departments of Commerce, Defense, and Transportation) Radar Operations Center (ROC), the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Research, the Lockheed Martin Corporation, the University of Oklahoma’s Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and School of Meteorology, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, the Federal Aviation

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Guoqi Han and Yu Shi

1. Introduction Accurate predictions of water levels are important for a large scope of coastal and open ocean activities, such as commercial transportation, coastal and offshore constructions, monitoring and prediction of changes in complex marine ecosystems, development and implementation of oceanic energy exploration, and oceanographic research. The instantaneous water-level measurements are not stationary either spatially or temporally. They fluctuate under a joint influence of tides

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Wilawan Kumharn, John S. Rimmer, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Toh Ying Ying, and Ann R. Webb

the United Kingdom and one is in Malaysia. A MKIII Brewer spectrometer has been installed on a rooftop at the University of Manchester, located in the city center area of Manchester, United Kingdom (53.47°N, 2.23°W), since the summer of 2000. The other U.K. instrument, a MKIV Brewer spectrometer, has been operational on the rooftop of the meteorological building of the University of Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W) since 2000 and, while on parkland, the motorway (M4) and light industry of the Thames

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Renee A. McPherson, Christopher A. Fiebrich, Kenneth C. Crawford, James R. Kilby, David L. Grimsley, Janet E. Martinez, Jeffrey B. Basara, Bradley G. Illston, Dale A. Morris, Kevin A. Kloesel, Andrea D. Melvin, Himanshu Shrivastava, J. Michael Wolfinbarger, Jared P. Bostic, David B. Demko, Ronald L. Elliott, Stephen J. Stadler, J. D. Carlson, and Albert J. Sutherland

technical standards for station siting ( Shafer et al. 2000 ). Their main objective was to increase data usefulness by ensuring that the physical characteristics of a site be as representative of as large an area as possible. Because National Weather Service (NWS) stations already monitored urban areas, a secondary objective was to establish a rural network. Using guidance from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO; WMO 1983 ), the site standards committee provided the following recommendations to

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K. R. Knupp, T. Coleman, D. Phillips, R. Ware, D. Cimini, F. Vandenberghe, J. Vivekanandan, and E. Westwater

. A deep temperature inversion extends from 400 to 900 m AGL, high RH exists below 500 m, and a tropopause height near 10 km is indicated in both the radiosonde and radiometer soundings. The retrieved fog/stratus ρ L maximum value of 0.14 g m −3 (inset in Fig. 4 ) located near 300 m AGL is consistent with observations of fog at this time (e.g., Gerber et al. 1999 ). Poor visibility and icing conditions during this upslope event led to major disruptions in surface and air transportation in the

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Faisal S. Boudala, George A. Isaac, Peter Filman, Robert Crawford, David Hudak, and Martha Anderson

1. Introduction Precipitation plays a critical role on our planet by modulating the hydrological cycle and by influencing daily human activities, including air and ground transportation. Validation of climate and numerical weather prediction models, and radar and satellite remote sensing algorithms, require accurate precipitation measurements. Precipitation amount is normally measured using a weighing gauge, which is an open container on the ground that collects precipitating hydrometeors

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C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. J. Crutzen, H. Fischer, H. Güsten, W. Hans, G. Heinrich, J. Heintzenberg, M. Hermann, T. Immelmann, D. Kersting, M. Maiss, M. Nolle, A. Pitscheider, H. Pohlkamp, D. Scharffe, K. Specht, and A. Wiedensohler

pulled away from its position for transportation to the laboratory for sample analysis. Aircraft 115 V, 400-Hz power is converted to 28 V DC by the main power supply (Type 6060, Aircraft Electronic Engineering GmbH, Seefeld, Germany). Thus, electronics and pumps all use DC, and frequent use is made of DC–DC converters. These convertors of the HF switching type provide galvanic separation, are small and compact, have efficiencies above 85%, and are used as on/off switches for the units. The central

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Valliappa Lakshmanan, Madison Miller, and Travis Smith

1. Motivation Time accumulation of gridded fields is a common step in a variety of meteorological applications. For example, precipitation totals are obtained from instantaneous rain rates derived from measured quantities such as infrared temperature or radar reflectivity. “Tracks” of severe weather phenomena such as hail or low-level circulations are created by accumulating instantaneous calculations of the size of hail or the magnitude of shear over time. Suppose a pixel at the location ( x

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Shuo Ma, Wei Yan, Yunxian Huang, Jun Jiang, Shensen Hu, and Yingqiang Wang

limitations of its predecessor, the operational line scanner (OLS) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), such as geometric distortion, a lack of accurate calibration, and low spatial resolution ( Miller et al. 2005 ; Lee et al. 2010 ; Lewis et al. 2010 ; Kuciauskas et al. 2013 ). Compared to the OLS, which has a nominal spatial resolution of ~2.8 km and no onboard calibration for visible channels, the DNB has a finer spatial resolution of 742 m that is constant across the entire scan

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Stanford B. Hooker and Donald B. Olson

SEPTEMBER 1984 STANFORD B. HOOKER AND DONALD B. OLSON 247Center of Mass Estimation in Closed Vortices: A Verification in Principle and Practice STANFORD B. HOOKER AND DONALD B. OLSONRosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Scier~ce, University of Miami, Department of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Miami, FL 33149 (Manuscript received 19 October 1983, in final form 20 April 1984

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