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Victoria L. Sanderson, Chris Kidd, and Glenn R. McGregor

oceanic afternoon maximum is a consequence of surface–cloud–radiation interactions ( Chen and Houze 1997 ) and changes in the life cycle of rainfall systems ( Sui et al. 1997 ). Continental influences modulate the oceanic diurnal cycle through land breezes and gravity waves leading to a more pronounced diurnal cycle ( Liberti et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ). 3. Data, sampling, and methodology a. Data and algorithm description The main data source for the study is the TRMM satellite, which has

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

( Fig. 7b ). Structural differences in the simulated CFADs between land and ocean are less coherent in the vertical direction, unlike those from the TRMM PR, which show clear, coherent patterns through solid, mixed, and liquid-phase precipitation. The results are also interesting because the MMF modeling setup does not account for the thermal patch effect. Robinson et al. (2011) concluded that mesoscale wave dynamics due to the thermal patch effect is the primary mechanism for continental

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Oreste Reale and Paul Dirmeyer

1. Introduction The interannual variability of precipitation is the outcome of different processes: the internal dynamics of the atmosphere and the variability of boundary forcings. The boundary forcing considered here is evaporation from the ocean and the land. The purpose of this two-part study is to investigate the impact of marine and terrestrial evaporation variabilities on interannual precipitation variability. A set of general circulation model (GCM) experiments, in which evaporation

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Michael L. Kaplan, Christopher S. Adaniya, Phillip J. Marzette, K. C. King, S. Jeffrey Underwood, and John M. Lewis

depicts the multiday polar jet and precipitable water analyses structure over the North Pacific Ocean starting at the time of the heavy rainfall sounding location at REV and working backward for both case studies. Figure 6 depicts the midtropospheric cold pools from a northern Pacific perspective that support each cyclone-scale wave for both case studies over the same time period as Fig. 5 . The cyclone-scale waves (wavelengths ∼2500 km) are defined by a polar jet maximum accompanying a wind shift

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William K. M. Lau and Kyu-Myong Kim

1. Introduction During late July and early August 2010, Pakistan suffered a cluster of torrential rain events, causing the worst flooding in 100 years. According to the reports of the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO 2011 ), 1700 people perished and 1.8 million homes were lost, rendering 20 million people homeless, with an economic loss estimated to be more than $40 billion (U.S. dollars). At about the same time, western Russia was stricken by a record heat wave and a prolonged drought

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Lin Zhao, S.-Y. Simon Wang, and Jonathan Meyer

of the Indian summer monsoon ( Ding and Wang 2007 ), eastern Tibetan Plateau precipitation ( Hu et al. 2016 ), and northwest China summer precipitation ( Chen and Huang 2012 ). Specifically, Chen and Huang (2012) suggested that tropical heating anomalies located over the north Indian Ocean and equatorial central Pacific, Indonesia, and tropical Atlantic are potential forcing sources of those midlatitude Rossby wave patterns across Eurasia and the Tibetan Plateau. Hawkins and Sutton (2009

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Chuntao Liu and Edward Zipser

precipitation amount. However, these measurements are only available over regions easy to access. Precipitation measurements over high mountains, deserts, and forests are very difficult to obtain by rain gauges. Over ocean, only sparse observations are available from the gauges on buoys (e.g., Bowman 2005 ) due to the difficulties of access and the cost. Therefore, remote sensing techniques have been widely used to provide a large areal coverage of precipitation estimates. The first attempt of remote

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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

Ralph et al. (2006) . Between 8 and 10 December, the expected river crest rose approximately 8 ft, a large change in the expected outcome in a short amount of time. Figures 1a and 1b also show the pressure reduced to mean sea level pressure (SLP; hPa) from ERA-Interim near the time of AR landfall in the RRW. Visible near 40°N, 137°W is a depression in SLP near the poleward periphery of the AR. This depression grew from a mesoscale frontal wave (MFW), initially detected in the ERA-Interim SLP field

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

models, here we examine the prediction of the driving precipitation anomalies. Conclusions are as follows. Drought onset can be favored by La Niña conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean that drive a wave train that places northerly flow above the southern Great Plains. This provides a source of predictability for drought onsets, but this will be limited by SST prediction skill and also, in the fall season, biases in the height teleconnection pattern. Ocean forcing alone may on occasions be

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Lindsey Hayden and Chuntao Liu

. Krummel , and H. Gerber , 1996 : Microphysical and short-wave radiative structure of wintertime stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 1307 – 1339 , . 10.1002/qj.49712253405 Boers , R. , J. B. Jensen , and P. B. Krummel , 1998 : Microphysical and short-wave radiative structure of stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean: Summer results and seasonal differences . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 151

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