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L. Zavala Sansón

1. Introduction This paper examines the properties of subinertial coastal-trapped waves in the ocean according to simple barotropic models. In the absence of stratification, these oscillations are mainly affected by both the earth’s rotation and the shape of the bottom topography. Subinertial topographic waves are also referred to as continental shelf waves, and they travel along the coast with shallow water to the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. In this sense, the

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James C. McWilliams, Edward Huckle, Junhong Liang, and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction The wind blows and the waves rise and roll on. This is the regime of Langmuir turbulence in the oceanic surface boundary layer (BL), so-called because Langmuir circulations (often recognized by the windrows in the surfactants they cause) are the primary turbulent eddies whose vertical momentum and buoyancy fluxes maintain the mean ageostrophic current and density stratification. Langmuir circulations arise from the instability of wind-driven boundary layer shear in the presence

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Juan M. Restrepo, Jorge M. Ramírez, James C. McWilliams, and Michael Banner

1. Introduction After the wind has been acting on the ocean surface for some time, the amplitude of the fastest growing wave component can reach a critical unstable steepness for which whitecapping occurs (for details and references see Banner and Peregrine 1993 ). We refer to the process of steepening, whitecapping, and changing amplitude as wave breaking. These short-lived, spatiotemporally random events reduce the excess energy in the wave field and modify the momentum of the background

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Ramsey R. Harcourt and Eric A. D’Asaro

1. Introduction Exchanges of heat, water, momentum, and chemical species between the atmosphere and the ocean interior are mediated by mixing within the upper ocean boundary layer. This study seeks to quantify the role of surface waves in setting the level of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in this layer. This TKE level figures prominently in many ocean boundary layer models, including turbulence closure schemes of Mellor and Yamada (1982) and the K -profle parameterization (KPP; Large et al

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Erik van Sebille and Peter Jan van Leeuwen

located in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The legitimacy of using such a model can be disputed, as waves and currents are not well represented, thereby strongly underestimating the advective transport of energy. This energy transfer through waves can, however, be an important factor in baroclinic processes such as the MOC (e.g., Saenko et al. 2002 ). The way in which perturbations can radiate energy through a basin was investigated by Johnson and Marshall (2002a , b ). In their high

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Luc Lenain and Nick Pizzo

1. Introduction Deep-water surface gravity waves play a crucial role in the marine boundary layer, modulating the exchange of mass, momentum, heat, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Melville 1996 ; Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Irrotational surface waves have particle orbits that are not closed, but instead are slightly elliptic, leading to a drift in their direction of wave propagation, known as Stokes drift. This drift is usually inferred from the directional surface wave spectrum

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Tomas Chor, James C. McWilliams, and Marcelo Chamecki

unstable conditions. Last, we define a Langmuir velocity scale as w L = ⁡ ( u * 2 u 0 s ) 1 / 3 ( Harcourt and D’Asaro 2008 ). It is useful to assume that u 0 s is sufficient to characterize the effects of waves (which may be of limited realism) since in that case La t and Λ are sufficient to characterize any oceanic regime with only waves, surface wind stress and surface buoyancy fluxes as forcings. Based on this assumption we use a modified version of the regime diagram (seen in Fig. 2

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S. T. Cole, D. L. Rudnick, B. A. Hodges, and J. P. Martin

1. Introduction Vertical mixing in the deep ocean, which keeps the ocean stratified and helps to maintain global overturning circulation, is primarily accomplished by the dissipation of internal waves. Internal waves are forced by basin-scale winds and tides and dissipate energy to small-scale turbulence. Tidal and wind dissipation are estimated to be of roughly equal importance to maintaining open ocean stratification ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ; Garrett and Kunze 2007

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Daniel Bourgault and Daniel E. Kelley

1. Introduction Diverse observational case studies suggest that the breaking of high-frequency interfacial solitary waves (ISWs) on sloping boundaries may be an important generator of vertical mixing in coastal waters (e.g., MacIntyre et al. 1999 ; Bourgault and Kelley 2003 ; Klymak and Moum 2003 ; Moum et al. 2003 ). Since mixing is important to many aspects of coastal ocean dynamics, these observations call for the development of a model capable of predicting ISW generation, propagation

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James C. McWilliams and Juan M. Restrepo

-layer horizontal currents whose convergence causes a vertical divergence (i.e., Ekman pumping), which drives the interior, geostrophically balanced, horizontal circulation in extratropical oceanic gyres. The vertical integral of the total horizontal circulation is the Sverdrup transport. In this simple theory the sea state is ignored. However, surface gravity waves are capable of generating a mean Lagrangian current called the Stokes drift ( Stokes 1847 ). The Stokes drift can affect the large-scale sea state

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