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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

, radiative transfer model calculations at wavenumbers as small as 220 cm −1 (45 μ m) could be evaluated with the RHUBC-II dataset. Five interferometers were deployed during RHUBC-II, along with one of the 183-GHz radiometers from RHUBC-I. This experiment provided the first complete spectral measurement of the entire downwelling terrestrial infrared spectrum from the ground ( Turner et al. 2012b ) and demonstrated that to first order the current water vapor continuum model, which includes the big change

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

atmosphere, discussing gases in the approximate chronological order in which they were discovered in the atmosphere, leading to the current understanding of composition given in Table 10-1 . Table 10-1. Average composition of dry air ( Seinfeld and Pandis 2016 ). a. Water vapor Apart from its obvious presence in precipitation, water vapor was the first atmospheric vapor to be identified and was recognized by Aristotle (c. 384–322 BC) in his treatise Meteorologica ( Möller 2008 ). The first measurement

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

heating of the upper troposphere and boundary layer clouds producing a net cooling of the lower troposphere ( Mace and Benson 2008 ; Mather et al. 2007 ). At the tropical sites, midlevel clouds associated with detrainment near the freezing level also have a large impact on the radiative heating profiles. Detailed studies of the heating rate profiles associated with different cloud types ( Mather and McFarlane 2009 ) also illustrate that the existence of multiple cloud layers can have complex impacts

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

precipitation based on various model types that include cloud, numerical weather prediction (NWP), and climate models can include issues related to scale and downscaling issues, microphysical schemes, parameterizations, data assimilation, and boundary conditions. Thus, specific sections on methods used to measure snow, its prediction, and their inherent limitations and uncertainties, are presented. The current status of the prediction of snow precipitation at various scales and the effects of snow on

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

ice to cloud rather than the production of new particles. Splinter production following the freezing of a large millimeter size droplet that subsequently shatters (droplet shattering; e.g., Mason and Maybank 1960 ; Brownscombe and Thorndike 1968 ), in contrast to the freezing of a small cloud droplet that impacts a rimer (i.e., rime splintering), is a SIP process that is currently being explored in detail. While Mason and Maybank (1960) found that the splinter production rate decreased with

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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

its observed irregularity ( Majda and Stechmann 2011 ). This model was expanded to include a frictional boundary layer that appears to improve upon the realism of the simulated MJO and aid in the selection of eastward-propagating modes (e.g., Wang and Liu 2011 ; Liu and Wang 2013 ), with the ability of synoptic-scale disturbances to destabilize the MJO dependent on where particular wave types occur relative to the MJO convective envelope (as discussed above). Besides the theoretical work

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

impacts from ENSO are also found during boreal winter ( Chang et al. 2004b ; Robertson et al. 2011 ). How the interactions of the transient motion systems are affected by ENSO, such as whether some effects may be through diurnal cycle ( Qian et al. 2010 , 2013 ), are unanswered questions. Effects of longer-term variations, from decadal to climate change scales, on these interactions are also mostly unknown. The skills of current climate models are typically low for the Maritime Continent area, with

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Ulrich Schumann and Andrew J. Heymsfield

; Boies et al. 2015 ). EI soot at cruise can be estimated from ground-based measurements and engine parameters ( Peck et al. 2013 ). Stettler et al. (2013) show that current methods deriving aircraft soot mass emissions from smoke number data may underestimate the mass emissions by about a factor of 3, partly because smaller particles contribute little to the smoke number measurement. From the few experimental data points from in situ measurements behind cruising civil subsonic aircraft, in

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