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M. Breil and G. Schädler

1. Introduction The turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere are a central component of Earth’s climate system. At the land surface, solar radiation is absorbed, transformed, stored, and released again into the atmosphere as sensible and latent heat. In this way, sensible and latent heat fluxes control the climate conditions within the boundary layer and constitute the lower boundary condition for all atmospheric circulations on Earth. The partitioning of the turbulent

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Bailing Li, Matthew Rodell, Christa Peters-Lidard, Jessica Erlingis, Sujay Kumar, and David Mocko

sustainable groundwater development, defined as current and future groundwater use that will not cause undesirable environmental consequences ( Alley et al. 1999 ). Over the past several decades, overexploitation of groundwater resources has led to depleted aquifers, land subsidence, groundwater contamination, decreased low flow, and seawater intrusion in many regions across the world ( Robins 1998 ; Konikow and Kendy 2005 ; Kuhn et al. 2007 ; Rodell et al. 2009 ; Wada et al. 2010 ; Famiglietti et al

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Abedeh Abdolghafoorian and Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction The interactions between land and atmosphere play a significant role in the climate and weather system. Variations in land states affect the atmosphere through their effects on surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and the subsequent impact of those fluxes on the atmosphere vertical structures and mixing processes. Land surface controls on atmospheric boundary layer properties have been well demonstrated (e.g., Ek and Holtslag 2004 ; Gentine et al. 2013 ). Recognizing

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Emily A. Slinskey, Paul C. Loikith, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, and Andrew Martin

monsoon). This method defines ARs on the basis of moisture transport and connected object characteristics only. Therefore, it does not consider spatiotemporally related phenomena (e.g., fronts and extratropical cyclones) that are part of the phenomenological understanding of ARs in the global climate. Defining ARs in this way is consistent with current literature ( Shields et al. 2018 ), and it is beyond the scope of this study to attempt to link AR objects with any phenomena besides extreme

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Klaus Vormoor and Thomas Skaugen

estimates agree best during summer, when a considerable mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer is present. Precipitation estimates agree best during winter, when large-scale precipitation patterns dominate over convective precipitation. b. High-resolution hindcast series Gridded temperature and precipitation hindcasts with hourly temporal resolution and 0.1° grid spacing are available for the time period between September 1957 and December 2010. These hindcast series have been generated by the

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Xuejian Cao, Guangheng Ni, Youcun Qi, and Bo Liu

al. 2008 ). The SRI can be determined by field survey or derived from observed rainfall–runoff data of each subcatchment ( Ebrahimian et al. 2016 ), due to the explicitly physical meaning of the unit boundary and the relatively small amount of calculation units. However, to better characterize the high spatial variability, fully distributed models always present more competency ( Chao et al. 2019 ), especially in the application to the urban area with extremely complicated surface conditions

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Shibo Yao, Dabang Jiang, and Zhongshi Zhang

certain precipitation day, the main precipitation areas are those where the precipitation accounts for 80% of the total precipitation. Second, Sodemann and Zubler (2010) indicated that the moisture origins for precipitation in the target area are unlikely to be fundamentally different above and below the boundary layer, which is also true for the moisture source of Xinjiang heavy precipitation when we performed a preliminary investigation on the issue in this study. According to recent studies ( Sun

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Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Chen Zhao, Zachary T. Leasor, and Christian Landry

1. Introduction Soil moisture is a critical variable, impacting and informing a wide variety of scientific disciplines and applications. Soil moisture influences the climate system through modification of energy and moisture fluxes into the boundary layer, thereby influencing temperature, humidity, and precipitation ( McPherson 2007 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2011 ). This influence, or memory, from anomalously wet or dry soils can have a persistent impact on the atmosphere

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David A MacLeod, Rutger Dankers, Richard Graham, Kiswendsida Guigma, Luke Jenkins, Martin C. Todd, Augustine Kiptum, Mary Kilavi, Andrew Njogu, and Emmah Mwangi

advisories with a few days’ lead time ( MacLeod et al. 2020 ) and a 3-day streamflow forecast is produced for the Nzoia River basin of western Kenya. In Uganda, the Uganda Red Cross in collaboration with other stakeholders are piloting the use of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) to initiate early actions up to a week in advance. These examples are representative of the lead time of currently available basin-scale flood forecasts in the region. Fig . 1. Topography of the study area, including

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Julie A. Vano, Tapash Das, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

reductions in mean annual discharge of less than 10% to almost 50% by the mid-2000s ( Hoerling et al. 2009 ). Part of this range is attributable to differences in the forcing data used, both in resolution and in the variation of climate models included in the different studies. Differences also reflect biases in the runoff projections (as shown below, hydrologic sensitivities are highly nonlinear, and hence depend on the models’ estimates of current climate runoff) and reflect variations in hydrologic

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