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Rachel Hauser

) even if atmospheric CO 2 emission levels are stabilized in the near term ( Matthews and Caldeira 2008 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2011 ). To stabilize the climate, emissions must be brought down sharply, which will require comprehensive global cooperation. While some nations such as Japan, Norway, and Germany have had success in their efforts to reduce their global emissions, the current pledges for reductions in national emissions are insufficient to meet the objective of keeping global average

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

increase the effectiveness of current severe weather warnings. Although multiple media are used to disseminate weather warnings, televised warnings continue to be the most utilized source of information during severe weather outbreaks ( Wolf 2009 ). Despite rapidly developing advancements made to severe weather warning delivery and communication, significant impact to property and lives continues to be a major consequence associated with severe weather throughout the United States ( Folger 2013

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Rachel E. Riley

Arkansas climate hazards, a climate decision support tool (DST), because of needs expressed at a workshop with planners and emergency managers (herein referred to as the “decision-makers”). SCIPP is a climate boundary organization, an organization whose goal is to support the production of actionable knowledge for various decision contexts ( Goodrich et al. 2020 ). An evaluation was conducted to understand the SPT’s utility, or usefulness, to decision-making. Before explaining how and why the SPT was

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Ákos Malatinszky

1. Introduction Climate change is likely to have impacts on the agricultural sector as well as on nature conservation, including grassland-based livestock production in many regions of the world ( IPCC 2007 ). These sectors will be more sensitive to climate change than manufacturing and retail and the effects will be more negative in marginal regions aggravating current economic and social problems ( Maracchi et al. 2005 ). Although intensive agricultural systems generally have a low

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

laboratory settings, how people weigh and select alternate possible decisions ( Galotti 1989 ), mental models research focuses more on how real-world experiences shape overall reasoning. Mental models are “beliefs about the networks of causes and effects that describe how a system operates, along with the boundary of the model … and the time horizon considered relevant” ( Sterman and Sweeney 2007 ). Nersessian (2002) theorizes they evolved as a flexible adaptation to move and interact through the

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Maria Kubacka, Maciej Matczak, Maciej Kałas, Lucjan Gajewski, and Marcin Burchacz

that may be implemented in the Polish marine areas in connection with offshore investments. Two of the points are placed on the high seas, in the western (point A) and eastern (point B) parts of the Polish EEZ. Point A is in the area of the planned Baltica OWF, 45 km from the shoreline, at a depth of 40 m. Point B is located 35 km from the shore at a depth of ~25 m, on the route of the Baltic Pipe gas pipeline linking Poland and Denmark, which is currently under construction. The third point (C) is

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Emma Austin, Anthony S. Kiem, Jane Rich, David Perkins, and Brian Kelly

tools to quantify the different types of drought. How drought is quantified directly links to the provision of support services in terms of eligibility (e.g., spatial area covered), type (e.g., financial, counseling), and level of support (e.g., loan, income payment, and tax subsidy). This paper explores the ways drought is quantified in Australian empirical studies and considers whether current methods effectively capture well-being outcomes. Drought indices produce a single numerical value that is

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

for addressing these issues. Crop choice and area set aside for production in addition to climatological factors and management techniques determine water use in agriculture. So far, understanding agricultural response to variability in economic and climatic boundary conditions has been primarily focused on modeling agricultural yields at different scales (e.g., see the review by Challinor et al. 2009 , and references therein). However, accurately forecasting the timing and magnitude of important

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Christoph Toeglhofer, Roland Mestel, and Franz Prettenthaler

the weather risk that ski areas currently face, inherent uncertainties remain concerning the methodological robustness of the estimates obtained, both on the basis of the shorter periods, and when using the analog approach. Estimates derived using the latter approach are likely to be at the lower boundary of actual weather risk. On the other hand, the decision concerning whether to account for trends in the underlying meteorological data or not, has a clear influence on the estimated likelihood of

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Sonia Savelli and Susan Joslyn

, Washington, has more pleasure boats per capita than any other city in the United States ( Seattle Parks and Recreation 2011 ). Recreational boaters constitute high-stakes end users because weather has a huge impact on almost all aspects of boating. It is crucial for safety as well as cruise planning and navigation. The major body of water in this area, Puget Sound, is known for its highly variable weather and currents, making trip planning critical to boater safety. In 2010, the U.S. Coast Guard (2010

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