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Elizabeth C. McNie

scale and context ( Pielke 2007 ; McNie et al. 2007 ). Our current efforts in producing useful information to address climate adaptation and other coupled human–environmental problems are inadequate, and we need to improve our abilities to produce useful information for decision support ( NRC 2012 , 2009a , b , 2007a , b , 2005a , b , 1999 ; CCSP 2008 ; Committee on Science 2002 ; Mayden 2002 ; Ehlers 1998 ). At present, producing more useful information often involves increasing research

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Robert Drost, Mark Casteel, Julie Libarkin, Stephen Thomas, and Matt Meister

increase the effectiveness of current severe weather warnings. Although multiple media are used to disseminate weather warnings, televised warnings continue to be the most utilized source of information during severe weather outbreaks ( Wolf 2009 ). Despite rapidly developing advancements made to severe weather warning delivery and communication, significant impact to property and lives continues to be a major consequence associated with severe weather throughout the United States ( Folger 2013

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Rachel E. Riley

Arkansas climate hazards, a climate decision support tool (DST), because of needs expressed at a workshop with planners and emergency managers (herein referred to as the “decision-makers”). SCIPP is a climate boundary organization, an organization whose goal is to support the production of actionable knowledge for various decision contexts ( Goodrich et al. 2020 ). An evaluation was conducted to understand the SPT’s utility, or usefulness, to decision-making. Before explaining how and why the SPT was

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Ákos Malatinszky

1. Introduction Climate change is likely to have impacts on the agricultural sector as well as on nature conservation, including grassland-based livestock production in many regions of the world ( IPCC 2007 ). These sectors will be more sensitive to climate change than manufacturing and retail and the effects will be more negative in marginal regions aggravating current economic and social problems ( Maracchi et al. 2005 ). Although intensive agricultural systems generally have a low

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Barbara Millet, Andrew P. Carter, Kenneth Broad, Alberto Cairo, Scotney D. Evans, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

laboratory settings, how people weigh and select alternate possible decisions ( Galotti 1989 ), mental models research focuses more on how real-world experiences shape overall reasoning. Mental models are “beliefs about the networks of causes and effects that describe how a system operates, along with the boundary of the model … and the time horizon considered relevant” ( Sterman and Sweeney 2007 ). Nersessian (2002) theorizes they evolved as a flexible adaptation to move and interact through the

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Maria Kubacka, Maciej Matczak, Maciej Kałas, Lucjan Gajewski, and Marcin Burchacz

that may be implemented in the Polish marine areas in connection with offshore investments. Two of the points are placed on the high seas, in the western (point A) and eastern (point B) parts of the Polish EEZ. Point A is in the area of the planned Baltica OWF, 45 km from the shoreline, at a depth of 40 m. Point B is located 35 km from the shore at a depth of ~25 m, on the route of the Baltic Pipe gas pipeline linking Poland and Denmark, which is currently under construction. The third point (C) is

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Emma Austin, Anthony S. Kiem, Jane Rich, David Perkins, and Brian Kelly

tools to quantify the different types of drought. How drought is quantified directly links to the provision of support services in terms of eligibility (e.g., spatial area covered), type (e.g., financial, counseling), and level of support (e.g., loan, income payment, and tax subsidy). This paper explores the ways drought is quantified in Australian empirical studies and considers whether current methods effectively capture well-being outcomes. Drought indices produce a single numerical value that is

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

for addressing these issues. Crop choice and area set aside for production in addition to climatological factors and management techniques determine water use in agriculture. So far, understanding agricultural response to variability in economic and climatic boundary conditions has been primarily focused on modeling agricultural yields at different scales (e.g., see the review by Challinor et al. 2009 , and references therein). However, accurately forecasting the timing and magnitude of important

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Yajie Li, Amanda Lee Hughes, and Peter D. Howe

). Fig . 1. A map showing the distribution of the sampled NWS WFOs, and the NWS regional offices’ operational boundaries. White lines separate adjacent WFOs. No WFOs are across NWS regional boundaries (after Li et al. 2018 ). b. Operationalization The dependent variable of retweet counts is the number of times a tweet was retransmitted. The respective effects of the PMFs were operationalized as four variables indicating the presence or absence of each PMF ( hazard intensity , health risk

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Sonia Savelli and Susan Joslyn

, Washington, has more pleasure boats per capita than any other city in the United States ( Seattle Parks and Recreation 2011 ). Recreational boaters constitute high-stakes end users because weather has a huge impact on almost all aspects of boating. It is crucial for safety as well as cruise planning and navigation. The major body of water in this area, Puget Sound, is known for its highly variable weather and currents, making trip planning critical to boater safety. In 2010, the U.S. Coast Guard (2010

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