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Angélique Melet, Lionel Gourdeau, William S. Kessler, Jacques Verron, and Jean-Marc Molines

1. Introduction The South Pacific low-latitude western boundary currents (LLWBCs) are seen as a major contributor to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and to the equatorial cold tongue by both observational ( Tsuchiya 1981 ; Tsuchiya et al. 1989 ) and model tracer studies ( Blanke and Raynaud 1997 ; Fukumori et al. 2004 ). With the South Pacific being a source of decadal variability ( Luo and Yamagata 2001 ; Luo et al. 2003 , 2005 ; Giese et al. 2002 ; Bratcher and Giese 2002 ; Chang et

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Stephanie Legutke

with the contour integral of the wind stress along the f/H-contours enclosing the deep basins. There is some evidence from observations to support these model results.1. Introduction The Greenland and Norwegian seas (GNS) are ofparticular importance for earth's climate. Due to themeridional circulation, which transports warm salineAtlantic water to the north in the eastern half of thebasin and fresher cold water of polar origin to the southalong its western periphery, they provide an

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Nirnimesh Kumar, Falk Feddersen, Yusuke Uchiyama, James McWilliams, and William O’Reilly

waves affect cross-shelf exchange. Baroclinic semidiurnal waves in the inner shelf (20-m depth) flux heat and nitrate farther inshore ( Lucas et al. 2011 ; Wong et al. 2012 ). Internal wave mixing is responsible for pumping nutrients up into the euphotic zone, initiating phytoplankton blooms ( Omand et al. 2012 ). Nonlinear internal waves (e.g., Pineda 1994 ; Nam and Send 2011 ) can advect cold waters from 6-m depth into the surfzone ( Sinnett and Feddersen 2014 ) and are hypothesized to

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

( Frank and Husain 1971 ; Webster 2008 ). Communities living around the large river deltas of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar are particularly vulnerable to storm surge and flooding from cyclones (e.g., De et al. 2005 ; Raghavan and Rajesh 2003 ; Adler 2005 ; Lin et al. 2009 ). The BoB experiences an average of three to four tropical cyclones per year; there are two cyclone seasons, April–June and late September–December (premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons). The temperature–salinity structure of

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