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Liping Zhang and Thomas L. Delworth

1. Introduction The observed 1976/77 climate shift over the North Pacific Ocean featured a decadal-scale transition from one pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to a comparable pattern of opposite sign ( Mantua et al. 1997 ). Many studies have examined the potential mechanisms influencing this decadal variability (e.g., Deser and Blackmon 1995 ; Schneider et al. 1999 ; Seager et al. 2001 ; Wu et al. 2005 ) and its potential climate impacts (e.g., Mantua and Hare 2002

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Xiaofan Li, Zeng-Zhen Hu, and Bohua Huang

.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<0122:AMFTRO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<0122:AMFTRO>2.0.CO;2 Álvarez-García , F. , M. Latif , and A. Biastoch , 2008 : On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability . J. Climate , 21 , 3433 – 3452 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1800.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI1800.1 Álvarez-García , F. , M. J. OrtizBevia , and W. D. CabosNarvaez , 2011 : On the structure and teleconnections of North Atlantic decadal variability . J. Climate , 24 , 2209 – 2223 , https

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Mengrong Ding, Pengfei Lin, Hailong Liu, and Fei Chai

. Some of the studies report the interannual and decadal variabilities of eddy activities in the North Pacific ( Qiu and Chen 2005 , 2013 ; Yoshida et al. 2011 ; He et al. 2016 ; Sun et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2016 ; Chow et al. 2017 ; Yang et al. 2017 ). Qiu and Chen (2013) detect that eddy kinetic energy (EKE) within the 18°–28°N band shows decadally varying signals concurrently, which is correlated with the decadal changes of upper-ocean eastward shear signals. Yang et al. (2017) reveal

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J. Mauro Vargas-Hernández, Susan E. Wijffels, Gary Meyers, André Belo do Couto, and Neil J. Holbrook

1. Introduction Understanding the decadal-to-multidecadal variability of the upper-ocean thermal structure is essential to improve our understanding of the ocean’s role in coupled ocean–atmosphere climate dynamics, including climate variability modes and their mechanistic separation from long-term multidecadal trends. Importantly, better understanding of decadal climate modes of variability, for which the upper-ocean temperature (and density) structure plays a critical role in defining the time

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Yoshiyuki Kajikawa and Bin Wang

broad impact on the East Asian weather in boreal summer ( Nitta 1987 ) and the Indian Ocean climate variability ( Kajikawa et al. 2003 ). Recently, the interdecadal change of the western North Pacific monsoon, including the SCSSM, has been discussed ( Kwon et al. 2005 , 2007 ). Kwon et al. (2005) found a significant decadal change in the East Asian summer monsoon and its relationship with the western North Pacific monsoon before and after (inclusive) 1994. Yim et al. (2008) found a similar

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Greg Kociuba and Scott B. Power

( Bellenger et al. 2014 ; Stoner et al. 2009 ; Newman et al. 2003 ; Smith and Sardeshmukh 2000 ; Trenberth and Hoar 1996 , 1997 ). Here we consider the level of interannual variability and the degree of persistence that exists in the interannual variability. The larger the interannual variability and the larger the persistence, then the larger the trends can be. Here we will examine the level of interannual variability. We will focus here on the standard deviation (σ) of both interannual and decadal

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Hui Shi, Bin Wang, Jian Liu, and Fei Liu

). Since the decadal to centennial variations and responses to external forcing often occur beyond regional scales, it is more proper to look at larger spatial scale rainfall reconstructions for detecting coherent changes of the EASM and ISM, as well as adjacent regions in Asia. This has not been done. Among the major challenges to understand decadal to multidecadal climate variability are to distinguish whether such changes arise from internal coupled dynamic modes or are driven by forcings external

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Ben P. Kirtman and Paul S. Schopf

. 1995 ), the Zebiak and Cane (1987) model has lower skill during the 1990s. Similar decadal variability in forecast skill has also been detected in the Kirtman et al. (1997) prediction system and by Balmaseda et al. (1995) in their hybrid coupled model. The contrast in prediction skill between the 1980s and the early 1990s is quite clear. What remains unclear is whether this contrast was a statistical fluke or whether there was some fundamental change in the coupled ENSO system. The results

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Changgui Lin, Kun Yang, Jun Qin, and Rong Fu

1. Introduction Widespread surface wind speed declines have been observed from ground measurements over the past few decades in many tropical and midlatitude regions including China ( McVicar et al. 2012 , and references therein). These declines of surface wind speed may contribute to declines of atmospheric potential evaporation, as measured by pan evaporation ( Chen et al. 2006 ; McVicar et al. 2012 ; Roderick et al. 2007 ), and the weakening trend in atmospheric sensible heat over some

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Rym Msadek, T. L. Delworth, A. Rosati, W. Anderson, G. Vecchi, Y.-S. Chang, K. Dixon, R. G. Gudgel, W. Stern, A. Wittenberg, X. Yang, F. Zeng, R. Zhang, and S. Zhang

al. 2012 ). This is consistent with a number of studies that point to the North Atlantic SPG as a region where internal variability is the main driver of decadal fluctuations ( Lozier et al. 2008 ; Ting et al. 2009 ; Terray 2012 ). A strong warming of the North Atlantic SPG was observed in the mid-1990s, with surface temperatures increasing by more than 1°C in less than five years ( Robson et al. 2012a ). Observations also reveal a weakening and a westward contraction of the SPG as the North

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