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Jia Wang

1. Introduction For many scientific and practical purposes, a Nowcast/Forecast System for Coastal Ocean Circulation (NFS-COC) is essential to advance ocean science from the descriptive stage to a numerical prediction stage. In meteorology, numerical weather forecasts ( Black 1994 ; Rogers et al. 1995 ) have been conducted operationally (and in the research model) for three decades now. In oceanography, numerical prediction has lagged behind due to the lack of process understanding, well

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Nicholas J. Elmer, Emily Berndt, Gary Jedlovec, and Kevin Fuell

Generation (MTG) Flexible Combined Imager (FCI; EUMETSAT 2018 ), allows for the creation of false-color multispectral composites, often called red–green–blue (RGB) composites. The European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) designed the first RGB composite recipes for SEVIRI to address specific forecast problems and developed a set of best practices for the future development and application of RGB composite recipes ( Lensky and Rosenfeld 2008 ; EUMETSAT User

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Robert Atlas, Ross N. Hoffman, Zaizhong Ma, G. David Emmitt, Sidney A. Wood Jr., Steven Greco, Sara Tucker, Lisa Bucci, Bachir Annane, R. Michael Hardesty, and Shirley Murillo

concepts and their supporting technologies. Impact experiments with real data, termed observing system experiments (OSEs), are conducted with and without one observing system to quantify the impact of that observing system. Similar experiments with simulated data are termed observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). In OSSEs a long forecast is taken to be the “truth” or nature run (NR). The present study complements previous DWL OSSEs by examining the impact of a new proposed technology, the

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R. Pacione and F. Vespe

1. Introduction Water vapor is a key element in the hydrological cycle and it is an important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The very inhomogeneous and highly variable distribution of atmospheric water vapor makes it a crucial element in weather forecasting. Conventional observing systems such as radiosondes and microwave radiometers have insufficient spatial sampling for observing its high variability. Ground-based GPS provides continuous, high temporal resolution measurements of the zenith

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Zaizhong Ma, Eric S. Maddy, Banglin Zhang, Tong Zhu, and Sid Ahmed Boukabara

.g., cloud-tracked winds) and numerical weather prediction (NWP). The AHI on Himawari-8 images Earth much faster than the Himawari-7 (or Multifunctional Transport Satellite-2) imager. It has 3 times the spectral coverage and a fourfold improvement in spatial resolution from 4 to 2 km for IR channels ( Bessho et al. 2016 ). For the global NWP models, the contribution of satellite data to the forecast accuracy now exceeds that of conventional or in situ observations. This has been achieved mainly

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Yu-Tai Hou, Kenneth A. Campana, Kenneth E. Mitchell, Shi-Keng Yang, and Larry L. Stowe

DECEMBER 1993 HOU ET AL. 833Comparison of an Experimental NOAA AVHRR Cloud Dataset with Other Observed and Forecast Cloud Datasets YU-TAI HOUGeneral Science Corporation, Laurel, MarylandKENNETH h. CAMPANA AND KENNETH E. MITCHELL National Meteorological Center, Washington, D.C. SHI-KENG YANGResearch and Data Systems, Corporation, Greenbelt

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N. Andrew Crook and Juanzhen Sun

has not kept pace. There has been a number of research studies in the area of radar data assimilation (see e.g., Sun et al. 1991 ; Sun and Crook 1994 ; Weygandt et al. 2002 ; Montmerle et al. 2001 ). Furthermore, groups at research laboratories such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast Systems Laboratory ( McGinley et al. 2000 ) and the Center for the Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma ( Xue et al. 2000 ; Brewster 1996 ) have been

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Eric Gilleland

1. Introduction A common situation in atmospheric science is the need to test a new forecast, or modification of an existing one, against the currently used, or other baseline, model. Both of these questions present hidden challenges that are often overlooked. Even when it is recognized that standard parametric-based statistical tests might not be appropriate, bootstrap methods are often seen as a fix for any situation. However, bootstrap methods still require assumptions. The most commonly

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J. Scott Greene, W. Ethan Cook, David Knapp, and Patrick Haines

-scale model resolution, field programs are invaluable for development and validation of physical parameterizations. However, meteorological models also need to be compared to long-term routinely collected meteorological data. Thus, the validation of a climate model can be done for a range of spatial and temporal scales to test both the dynamical and the physical aspects of the model climate ( Greene and Morrissey 2000 ). Whenever numerical forecast models are validated and compared, verification winds are

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Seppo Pulkkinen, V. Chandrasekar, and Ari-Matti Harri

1. Introduction Flash floods can cause significant property damage and loss of lives. Therefore, nowcasts (short-range forecasts) of severe rainfall causing such events are highly valuable for the society. Providing early warnings is especially important in densely populated urban areas. Weather radars are ideal for this purpose because of their high spatial and temporal resolution, for which the typical ranges in operational radar networks are 1–5 km and 5–15 min. Thus, the use of weather

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