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L. Cucurull, R. Li, and T. R. Peevey

nature run for July–August 2005 by the NOAA OSSE team, using geographical locations from July to August 2012 for the conventional and satellite data to enable simulation of satellite sensors launched after 2005. Realistic orbits were used to simulate COSMIC-2 soundings of refractivity with the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) constellations, and using the forward operator described in Cucurull (2010) . No systematic or random errors

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Lance F. Bosart

-record monthly precipitation totals were posted in many northeastern locations in response to an active coastal zone stormtrack. Just prior to the end of January an abruptcirculation reversal .occurred which ended theanomalously wet regime and ushered in a period ofintense cold across the northeastern United Stateswith little attendant precipitation. The height of thecold air outbreak was reached 17-18 February asa massive 1050 mb anticyclone invaded easternNorth America. Following the Presidents

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John D. Horel

Wallace and Gutzler (1981, hereafter referred to as WG).Teleconnection patterns are regional-scale patternsresembling standing waves with geographically fixednodes and antinodes (or centers of action). Recentstudies by Opsteegh and Van den Dool (1980) andHoskins and Karoly (1981) provide a plausibledynamical explanation for the existence of such teleconnection patterns, based on Rossby wave propagation on a sphere. Although conceptually simple, the negative extrema method used by WG requires

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Mei Han, Scott A. Braun, P. Ola G. Persson, and Jian-Wen Bao

three channels (19, 37, and 85 GHz) at (left) 0023, (middle) 0200, and (right) 0337 UTC 19 Feb 2001. Lines in the PCT panels outline the swath of the PR. Fig . 3. Geographic locations of the four domains used in the numerical simulation. Fig . 4. Domain 1 sea level pressure (thick contours, every 4 hPa), equivalent potential temperature (thin contours and shading, every 6 K), and wind barbs (full barb is 5 m s −1 ) at 975 hPa at (a) 2000 UTC 18 Feb, (b) 0200 UTC 19 Feb, and (c) 0800 UTC 19 Feb 2001

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J. C. Fankhauser

VOLUME 116storms were selected where a significant portion (> 1h) of the mature (precipitating) stage was monitoredby cloud-base research aircraft while under surveillanceby the NCAR CP-2 10-cm radar. To qualify for precipitation efficiency analyses the storms also had to bereadily identifiable convective entities from the standpoint of their radar echo histories. Some of the storm'sphysical characteristics are illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2and are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. The storms varied

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Jonathan E. Martin, John D. Locatelli, and Peter V. Hobbs

perpendicular to one another at 0000 UTC 26January. Differential thermal advection in a horizontal deformation field can lead to a thermally direct verticalcirculation by increasing the magnitude of the horizontal temperature gradient and inducing accelerationsalong the front. Hence, in the absence of significantmomentum advection effects it is relatively simple toinfer the location of vertical circulations and frontalpositions by locating regions where the horizontal flowon isobaric surfaces acts to

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K. I. Hodges and C. D. Thorncroft

further our understanding of the tropical African climate and the interannual variability in rainfall, it is necessary to consider the climatology and interannual variability of the mesoscale convective weather systems. Such a climatology does not exist and would be of use in developing general circulation model (GCM) parameterizations of convection. This paper provides such a climatology and relates it to the large-scale atmospheric parameters as well as to geographical features. The nature of the

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C. Warner, J. Simpson, D. W. Martin, D. Suchman, F. R. Mosher, and R. F. Reinking

latitude and longituderecognizable in the photos; also the box circuit, and the approximate locations of the ships Dallas (D) and Oceanographer (0). FIG. 11. Time-series plots of data from three aircraft, for the west side of the first box circuit. The plots are keyed to geographical location, shown in the middle. (Note that 0.1- of latitude = 11.1 kin.) Cross-hatching indicates the positions of thearcs shown in Figs. 6b and 6c, as derived from full resolution visible satellite images. At the

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Charles J. Neumann and Miles B. Lawrence

Efroymson(1964). However, retaining the three sets of forecastdisplacements as separate entities provides the hurricaneforecaster with important diagnostic information. Italso permits maximizing the size of the developmentdata set used by each sub-system. Finally, it providesfor the ability to assign weighting factors to eachsub-system based on operational rather than ondependent data (see Section 8.) Another feature of the new model is the use of anexpanded areal stratification system. The Atlantic

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Gary T. Riley and Lance F. Bosart

reports which do notoccur at a weather observation site). This toll easilymakes the Windsor Locks tornado the worst such eventin Connecticut history (Mogil and Campbell, 1980). Shown in Fig. 1 are the locations of severe weatherreports in the northeastern United State associated withthe storm complex that spawned the Windsor Lockstornado. The activity was concentrated in easternPennsylvania and New Jersey between 1200 and 1400UTC and in southern and central New England from1900 to 2220 UTC. A

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