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Sungsu Park, Clara Deser, and Michael A. Alexander

North Pacific (north of the Hawaiin Islands), central and northeastern Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Sea. Over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, turbulent heat flux feedback is generally weaker than the North Pacific and extratropical North Atlantic Oceans. Regions of positive turbulent heat flux feedback (negative λ ) occur over the western tropical Atlantic during DJF and over the central tropical Atlantic during March–May (MAM). Over the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, turbulent heat flux

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Tim Cowan, Ariaan Purich, Sarah Perkins, Alexandre Pezza, Ghyslaine Boschat, and Katherine Sadler

1. Introduction Heat waves are a common occurrence across many heavily populated regions of the world, including southern and central Europe (e.g., Fischer and Schar 2010 ; Kyselý 2010 ; Carril et al. 2008 ; Della-Marta et al. 2007 ; Trigo et al. 2005 ), North America (e.g., Bumbaco et al. 2013 ; Wu et al. 2012b ; Mastrandrea et al. 2011 ), China ( Wu et al. 2012a ; Ding et al. 2007 ), Russia ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2012 ; Barriopedro et al. 2011 ), central and southern Africa ( Hao

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Niklas Schneider

., M. Latif, and T. Stockdale, 1997: The coupled model ECHO-2. Part I: The tropical Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 703–720. Godfrey, J. S., 1989: A Sverdrup model of the depth-integrated flow for the World Ocean allowing for island circulations. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 45, 89–112. ——, 1996: The effect of the Indonesian throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: A review. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12217–12237. ——, and T. J. Golding, 1981: The

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J. C. Doran, J. C. Barnard, and W. J. Shaw

areas, however, the situation is quite different. Under such conditions, the properties of low-level clouds may be affected by surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, which will be different over the cold ocean and warmer land. Maxwell (1980) notes that convection is common over Canadian Arctic islands but also notes ( Maxwell 1982 ) that the interior and lee sides of islands are more likely to be cloud free because of heating of the land. Surface fluxes were also suggested as possibly

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Kazuo Mabuchi, Yasuo Sato, and Hideji Kida

result of the decreased latent heat flux. The soil water content in the MTC area increased due to the increased precipitation and the decreased latent heat flux. Also in the GR experiment, wind anomalies were mainly found over the islands of the MTC. The low-level convergence anomalies and the upper-level divergence anomalies, considered as direct effects of the vegetation changes, were limited to the islands of the MTC. The reason for these results was that the influences of vegetation change in the

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David Randall and Christian D. Kummerow

the 1950s and 1960s in the Caribbean. With Woodcock, Bunker, and later Charnock, Joanne helped establish the foundation for the first cumulus cloud models. These field measurements included the earliest successful airborne flux measurements of heat, moisture, and momentum and established the essential features of the structure of the surface, mixed, and cloud layers over the tropical oceans. With Herbert Riehl, she saw deep convection in the equatorial trough as a source of diabatic heating in the

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N. V. Zilberman, D. H. Roemmich, and S. T. Gille

1. Introduction The shallow meridional overturning circulation, also known as the subtropical cell (STC), controls the transfer of mass, heat, and salt between the subtropics and the equator and, as such, plays a key role both in the redistribution of water properties in the ocean and in oceanic climate variability. In the Pacific Ocean, the STC consists of subtropical water subducted in eastern areas of the ocean, flowing westward and equatorward in the upper pycnocline layers through both

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Simon McGree, Sergei Schreider, and Yuriy Kuleshov

Li et al. (2011) paper suggests lower latent heat fluxes, particularly post-1990, in a broad region around and northeast of Hawaii, which may be associated with reduced precipitation in the Hawaiian Islands in recent decades ( Diaz and Giambelluca 2012 ). In the South Pacific subtropics, the significant positive TDD and TDM trends are supported by negative trends in total annual precipitation and annual days with rainfall >1 mm and >10 mm since 1951 ( Jovanovic et al. 2012 ; McGree et al. 2014

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Julie M. Caron

meaningful as a heat transport. The computations were done on a T42 grid (2.8°) as a compromise between the requirement for high resolution to resolve islands and the ocean basin configurations and the need to smooth the analysis fields to suppress the small-scale noise. The same domains and procedures were used for each product. The second adjustment considers systematic changes in heat storage in the ocean. Largest interannual changes in upper-ocean heat content probably occur in association with El

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G. Vettoretti and W. R. Peltier

-elevation land features that are in close proximity to other landmasses with high elevation such as is the case with the highlands on Baffin Island and Ellesmere Island near the Greenland ice sheet ( Fig. 1b ). When Greenland is spectrally decomposed to wavenumber 32 in the model we employ, the steep slopes and high plateau are not adequately represented. Coastal elevations are too high while the central regions of the ice sheet tend to be too low ( Fig. 1b ). Since the spectral decomposition gives more

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