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KIRBY J. HANSON

. Koppen und R. Geiger, Band I, Teil A,Berlin, 1930, (pp. A30-A31 and table 3).13. K. P. Rusin, Radiatsionnyl Balans Snezhnoi Poverkhnosti vAntarktide, [Radiation Balance of the Snow Cover in theAntarctic], Informatsionnyi BzZIleten' Sovetskoi Antarkti-cheskoi Expeditsii, No. 2, Lcningrad, 1958, pp. 25-30.14. V. E. Suorni, D. 0. Staley, and P M. Kuhn, A Direct Measnre-ment of Infra-Red Radiation Uivergerlce to 160 mb.,Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 84'No. 360, Apr. 1958, pp

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HERBERT H. KIMBALL

determined by water in the atmosphere (water droplets), or annual average of 1.312. The corresponding annual aver- age given by me for the years 1912-18 except that the gaseous (water Va or), liquid SoEd (snow crystals) P Orm. The invisible water monthly means were reduced to mean solar distance of acts strongly to deplete the incoming radiation,partly through absorption of red and infra-red rays, partly t,he earth, is 1.35.a* Kimball, Herbert H. 1927. Measurements of,sola⟨ radiation intensity and

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Dr. J. SCHEINER

of a plane surface, viz, from 3 to 5 per cent.If water had bands of strong selective reflection in the infra-red the albedo of clouds might be higher than the above esti-mates.The r6blanket effects of clouds must therefore be due prin-cipally to their high emissivity (for those radiations emittedby the earth) hence to their high ef6ciency as a heat radiator.By definition the Kirchhoff radiator (so-called c r black body )is one in which the reflecting power is nil and which is per-fectly opaque

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N. Shimono

of a plane surface, viz, from 3 to 5 per cent.If water had bands of strong selective reflection in the infra-red the albedo of clouds might be higher than the above esti-mates.The r6blanket effects of clouds must therefore be due prin-cipally to their high emissivity (for those radiations emittedby the earth) hence to their high ef6ciency as a heat radiator.By definition the Kirchhoff radiator (so-called c r black body )is one in which the reflecting power is nil and which is per-fectly opaque

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P. Krishna Rao

byscanning radiometers. NOAA-2 carries two sets of scanning radiometers: one is the scanning radiometer (SR),and the second the very high resolution radiometer(VHRR). One of the channels of SR is sensitive tovisible (VIS) radiation in the 0.5-0.7 #m region and thesecond channel is sensitive to infrared (IR) in the10.5-12.5 t~m region. The ground resolution of the VISchannel is 4 km and that of the IR is about 8 km inthe nadir direction. The VHRR also has two channels,one in the visible at 0.6-0.7 ~m and

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H. H. KIMBALL

different ground surfaces. For example,the value for a field covered with fresh dry grass is from0.25 to 0.33, or more than double the values heretoforederived from photometric measurements. This differ-ence the author finds is due to the large coefficient of reflection of grass for red and infra-red radiation, whichwas found by measurement to be 0.45. It is pointed outthat if plants have a low reflecting power for short-waveradiation and a high reflecting power for long waves the reverse must be true

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Olivier Pauluis and Kerry Emanuel

outgoing longwave radiation in the equatorial band for various frequencies of radiation calls. The mean outgoing longwave radiation differs by about 15% between the run with 6-h intervals between radiation calls and the runs with more frequent updates. This decrease in OLR is due to an increase in upper-level cloudiness: the strong oscillations in the run with a 6-h interval produce thick cirrus clouds at the tropopause that greatly enhance the trapping of infrared radiation. b. Doppler shifting and

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CHARLES W. C. ROGERS and PAUL E. SHERR

;Ic:~.RE 3.--Infrarcd radiation analysis for orbital pass 880 revealing thr broadrning of the frontal band.s,- -I 1FIGCRE 4.--Rave development just prior to occlusion, later stageof same storm as shown in figure 2. TIROS IV, orbital pass 894,April 11, 1962.by the authors in [2], and wit'h concurrent infrared obser-vations subsequently invest.igated by the authors [3] underUS. Weather Bureau sponsorship) may be of interest toreaders of the Monthly Weather Review and is brieflydiscussed below

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H. S. MAYERSON, J. S. GRAHAM, and HENRY LAURENS

- quently exceeds 1.5 gr.-cal. per s . cm. per minute for short intervals, and a t least once 1 uring each year there are momentary readings which exceed 2 gr.-cal. per sq. cm. per minute, the highest value which can be registered accurately on the recorder used. SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY The average percentage distribution of ultra-violet, luminous and infra-red energy in direct sunlight at normal incidence is given in table 4. The absolute values vary, of course, with the total radiation, but

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M. A. Giorgetta and J-J. Morcrette

approximation but have a more general nature. The computational costs of the radiation modelare essentially the same as for the pure Lorentz linecomputation. Acknowledgments. M. A. Giorgetta thanks Dr. L.Bengtsson and Dr. E. Manzini, both at MPI in Hamburg, for helpful commems and suggestions. REFERENCESFels, S. B., 1979: Simple strategies for inclusion of Voigt effects in infrared cooling rate calculations. Appl. Opt., 18, 2634-2637.Goody, R. M., and Y. L. Yung, 1989: Atmospheric

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