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William Amponsah, Lorenzo Marchi, Davide Zoccatelli, Giorgio Boni, Marco Cavalli, Francesco Comiti, Stefano Crema, Ana Lucía, Francesco Marra, and Marco Borga

) Spatially distributed rainfall–runoff model A distributed hydrologic model is used to examine hydrologic response associated with space–time radar rainfall variability and to check consistency with postflood indirect peak flow estimates. The Kinematic Local Excess Model (KLEM; Marchi et al. 2010 ) combines a grid-based runoff-generation model and a network-based hillslope and channel transport model. Runoff generation is simulated by applying the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach

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Zuohao Cao, Jianmin Ma, and Wayne R. Rouse

), where ν (=1.46 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 ) is the kinematic viscosity; e.g., Garratt 1994 ], We have also tested Brutsaert’s (1982) formula to see how sensitive the sensible heat flux computation is to the different roughness length parameterization, As a result, the correlation coefficients between the observed and variational-method-calculated sensible heat flux using Garratt’s (1994) and Brutsaert’s (1982) formulas are 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Different from high-wind (>25 m s

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Jie Li, Tao Tao, Zhonghe Pang, Ming Tan, Yanlong Kong, Wuhui Duan, and Yuwei Zhang

storm. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21808 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL035481 . Crimp, S. , and Mason S. , 1999 : The extreme precipitation event of 11 to 16 February 1996 over South Africa . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 70 , 29 – 42 , doi: 10.1007/s007030050023 . D’Abreton, P. , and Tyson P. , 1996 : Three-dimensional kinematic trajectory modelling of water vapour transport over Southern Africa . Water SA , 22 , 297 – 306 . Dansgaard, W. , 1964 : Stable isotopes in precipitation . Tellus , 16

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Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Christian Kummerow, and Wesley Berg

reflectivity-based classification into convective and stratiform rainfall categories that account for the fundamental differences in their microphysical, thermodynamic, and kinematic properties. The Steiner et al. (1995) technique, for example, examines the intensity and spatial uniformity of the low-level reflectivity field to identify convective (high intensity, nonuniform) and stratiform (low intensity, uniform) regions. This approach has been adapted and applied to the TRMM-LBA dataset by Carey et

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Toshi Matsui, Brenda Dolan, Takamichi Iguchi, Steven A. Rutledge, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Stephen Lang

and saturation adjustment, (iii) riming and ice aggregation processes, and (iv) the breakup of large particles. Some of these biases/uncertainties in the microphysics may be related to the inaccurate representation of model dynamics, which may not truly resolve convective thermal bubbles ( Hernandez-Deckers and Sherwood 2016 ). In summary, this study showed that polarimetric radar signatures have unique L-O contrasts signals, which fundamentally characterize the microphysics and kinematics between

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Jonathan J. Gourley and Baxter E. Vieux

) and momentum (B2) equations, commonly referred to as the Saint–Venant equations, are used to derive the governing equations in the Vflo model; where u is the 1D component of velocity, h is the flow depth, r is the rainfall rate, i is the soil infiltration rate, g is the acceleration due to gravity, S o is the bed slope, and S f is the friction slope. The momentum equation (B2) is simplified by making the assumptions utilized in the kinematic wave analogy. The local

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Remko Uijlenhoet, Matthias Steiner, and James A. Smith

Marshall–Palmer type raindrop-size distributions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 23 , 768 – 771 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<0768:TRBAFM>2.0.CO;2 Best, A. C. , 1950 : Empirical formulae for the terminal velocity of water drops falling through the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 76 , 302 – 311 . 10.1002/qj.49707632905 Biggerstaff, M. I. , and Houze R. A. Jr. , 1991 : Kinematic and precipitation structure of the 10–11 June 1985 squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 119 , 3034 – 3065

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Edgar L. Andreas, P. Ola G. Persson, Andrey A. Grachev, Rachel E. Jordan, Thomas W. Horst, Peter S. Guest, and Christopher W. Fairall

/ z 0 and z Q / z 0 versus the roughness Reynolds number R * = u * z 0 / ν , where ν is the kinematic viscosity of air. These plots generally follow Andreas’s (1987) theoretical model; but, again, such plots are prone to fictitious correlation. We circumvent that problem by using the flux data to compute z T / z 0 and z Q / z 0 but using our bulk flux algorithm to compute R * . We also test z 0 , z T / z 0 , and z Q / z 0 for the influence of stratification. Both z 0 and z Q

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Timothy M. Lahmers, Hoshin Gupta, Christopher L. Castro, David J. Gochis, David Yates, Aubrey Dugger, David Goodrich, and Pieter Hazenberg

functions) that must be calibrated to ensure that the original model parameters are physically consistent with catchment properties (e.g., Gupta et al. 2008 , 2009 ). For example, Pokhrel et al. (2012) used a spatial regularization approach to calibrate the NWS Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrological Model (HL-RDHM), and Vergara et al. (2016) used spatial climate and land data to derive a priori estimates of routing parameters for the kinematic wave routing model across the CONUS to

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Allen B. White, Paul J. Neiman, Jessie M. Creamean, Timothy Coleman, F. Martin Ralph, and Kimberly A. Prather

. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 847 – 870 , doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1059.1 . Kingsmill, D. E. , White A. B. , Neiman P. J. , and Ralph F. M. , 2006 : Synoptic and topographic variability of Northern California precipitation characteristics in landfalling winter storms observed during CALJET . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2072 – 2094 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3166.1 . Kingsmill, D. E. , Neiman P. J. , Moore B. J. , Hughes M. , Yuter S. E. , and Ralph M. , 2013 : Kinematic and thermodynamic structures of

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