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Neda Kazemi, Maryam Sharifzadeh, and Mostafa Ahmadvand

amount of fertilizers, poisons, and pesticides; income; costs; and land tenure system. Table 1 presents a summary of different scales related to the development of the questionnaire for this research. Table 2 provides the reliability and validity values. 1 In this study, analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21. Table 1. Scales for measuring determinants of frost-protection behavior among walnut orchardists. Table 2. Measurement model: validity and reliability. Two items from “Ease of

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Brent Boehlert, Ellen Fitzgerald, James E. Neumann, Kenneth M. Strzepek, and Jeremy Martinich

output rather than 1982 output. 20 Using the U.S. population projections described in Paltsev et al. (2015) , the Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS; Bierwagen et al. 2010 ) model was applied to generate county-level population projections at 5-yr time steps between 2000 and 2100. 21 Present values are constructed by building a piecewise linear time series of average annual effects in 2005 dollars, discounting that series at 3% (2005$), and then summing the result. The piecewise

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Majid Shafiee-Jood, Tatyana Deryugina, and Ximing Cai

information-processing component that is considered in our model. 2 Throughout the paper, we use p () to represent objective probability and p ˜ ⁡ ( ) to represent subjective probability (i.e., the user’s belief). 3 In Fig. B1 , we show how the optimal land allocation decision x * changes with the user’s risk aversion r , wealth ω , and prior belief p 1 . 4 From the user’s perspective, these assumptions imply that the ensemble members have the same accuracy and are weighted equally and that the

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Lindsay C. Maudlin, Karen S. McNeal, Heather Dinon-Aldridge, Corey Davis, Ryan Boyles, and Rachel M. Atkins

1. Introduction In the face of global climate change, the need to disseminate accurate climate information to decision-makers for adaptation purposes has grown ( Salazar 2010 ); however, this is no easy feat. Consideration must be given to the climate information provided to decision-makers such that it is understandable and used appropriately ( Snover et al. 2013 ). Further consideration should be given to the presentation of the climate information from the visualization and design of the

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Hannah Torres and Kamal Alsharif

areas in Lee County, goal areas or action areas in Broward County, and climate change vulnerabilities in the city of Punta Gorda). Categories that appeared across all study areas included infrastructure, public policies and programs, land-use management, water supply, natural systems and resources, and education/outreach ( Beever et al. 2009 , 2010 ; Broward County Climate Change Task Force 2010 ; Broward County 2015b ; SFRCCC 2012 ). To determine other similarities and differences between study

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Rebecca Page and Lisa Dilling

. B. Mitchell , 2003 : Knowledge systems for sustainable development . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 100 , 8086 – 8091 , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1231332100 . 10.1073/pnas.1231332100 Cravens , A. E. , 2018 : How and why Upper Colorado River Basin land, water, and fire managers choose to use drought tools (or not). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Rep. 2018–1173, 60 pp., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181173 . 10.3133/ofr20181173 Dettinger , M. , B. Udall , and A. Georgakakos , 2015

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Johanna Nalau, Susanne Becken, Johanna Schliephack, Meg Parsons, Cilla Brown, and Brendan Mackey

in designing appropriate EbA measures ( Vignola et al. 2009 ). Empirical examples from Tanna Island (Vanuatu) highlighted the existence of very sophisticated traditional crop rotation systems on Tanna Island that are still in use and maintain community food security. However, communities noted these were eroding, given the increased pressure of population growth and having to convert forests into agricultural areas. One key factor in land use is land ownership regulations and community decision

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Simon Albert, Kirsten Abernethy, Badin Gibbes, Alistair Grinham, Nixon Tooler, and Shankar Aswani

sediment dynamics and erosion processes at a local scale, this assumption of bathtub inundation is required. Global estimates indicate 0.31% of land surface would be inundated from 1 m of sea level rise ( Dasgupta et al. 2009 ). In comparison, results from mapping coastal topography using laser-level survey methods show the scale of inundation in the Solomon Islands is relatively high, with four of the nine villages surveyed likely to experience ≥0.31% loss of land. In the Solomon Islands, as in the

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Johannes Möllmann, Matthias Buchholz, and Oliver Musshoff

for each farm were derived by calculating the average values for each index over all relevant pixels. For the calculation of the farm-level indices, the values of four pixels covering the cultivated areas were averaged. County-level indices were obtained by averaging the values of all pixels within the county borders. To only consider pixels covering arable land, we used the GLC2000 land-cover map with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km ( Bartholomé and Belward 2005 ) and Google Earth imagery to

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Yosuke Adachi

that measurement point as the landfall time was noted. Otherwise, landfall time was determined by linear interpolation between the two measurement points on either side of the landfall location. 2) Maximum surge heights The Display Program of SLOSH (hereafter, SDP; National Weather Service 2013b ) was used to determine maximum surge height. The values of Maximum Envelope of Water (MEOW), with land elevation subtracted, were viewed for the relevant SLOSH basin(s) for each landfall. The maximum

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