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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

1. Introduction Snow plays an important role in the hydrologic regime of mountainous catchments. In Mediterranean regions, significant variability in both meteorological variables and topographic features can be found ( Diodato and Bellocchi 2007 ). This adds complexity to the task of monitoring and modeling the evolution of snow distribution, which determines the infiltration–runoff regime and the availability of water during the dry season. Initially, a first approach to studying snowpack

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Alexis Berne, Guy Delrieu, Herve Andrieu, and Jean-Dominique Creutin

perturbations during the autumn season ( Jacq 1994 ; Rivrain 1997 ). These perturbations are generated by upper-level troughs extending from the United Kingdom down to the Iberian Peninsula. These synoptic features lead to the advection of warm and humid air from the Mediterranean Sea toward the coastal regions. The pronounced relief (Pyrénées, Massif Central, and Alps) triggers convection and channels the low-level flows inducing low-level convergence which contributes to the release of convective

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A. Amengual, R. Romero, M. Gómez, A. Martín, and S. Alonso

1. Introduction The topography of the Spanish Mediterranean area makes it especially prone to flash-flood events. Mountain systems near the coast usually act as natural barriers to the warm moist Mediterranean air, inducing the generation of intense rainfall rates that show high variability in space and time. Serious damage can occur when intense convective rainfall events combine with short hydrological response times, characteristic of steep streams and increasing urbanization rates in

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D. D’Onofrio, E. Palazzi, J. von Hardenberg, A. Provenzale, and S. Calmanti

regional climate model for the Mediterranean area ( Artale et al. 2010 ). It is composed by the Regional Climate Model, version 3 (RegCM3), for the atmospheric component ( Giorgi et al. 1993a , b ) and by a regional configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm) for the oceanic component ( Marshall et al. 1997a , b ). The two models are coupled by the Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS3) software, through which coupling fields are exchanged every 6 h

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Sonja S. Folwell, Phil P. Harris, and Christopher M. Taylor

and accumulate over several days to produce mega-heat waves. They attribute the strength of the 2003 European and 2010 Russian heat wave events to this mechanism. Similarly, nonlocal effects may play a role, with anomalously low winter and spring soil moisture patterns propagating northward from the Mediterranean to central and northern Europe, through transportation of warm dry air ( Quesada et al. 2012 ; Vautard et al. 2007b ; Zampieri et al. 2009 ). Established soil moisture deficits can then

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M. Ionita, M. Dima, G. Lohmann, P. Scholz, and N. Rimbu

spring and summer floods over central Europe and is known as “Zugstrasse Vb” ( Mudelsee et al. 2004 ), advected a lot of moisture from the Mediterranean Sea toward the Alps. Societies with large populations located within river watersheds use water for social purposes, agriculture, and industrial production. Therefore, streamflow forecasting is of great importance for water resource management and flood defense. Although the predictability of the seasonal streamflows is a central aspect in the

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Karl Vanderlinden, Juan Vicente Giráldez, and Marc Van Meirvenne

Mediterranean coasts or to site-specific windy or cloudy conditions (e.g., near the Gibraltar Peninsula), but in general not to elevation since all coastal observatories are located close to sea level. Therefore, eliminating these observatories, the overall correlation between ET 0 and elevation was improved from −0.75 to −0.86. The relationship of ET 0 with elevation was modeled using a quadratic polynomial function ( Fig. 3 ). During the winter (e.g., January) the fitted functions behaved almost

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Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann, Norel Rimbu, and Silvia Chelcea

. Lloyd-Hughes, B. , and Saunders M. A. , 2002 : Seasonal prediction of European spring precipitation from ENSO and local sea surface temperatures . Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1 – 14 . Mariotti, A. , Zeng N. , and Lau K.-M. , 2002 : Euro-Mediterranean rainfall and ENSO—A seasonally varying relationship . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 , 1621 , doi:10.1029/2001GL014248 . Marshall, J. , and Coauthors , 2001 : North Atlantic climate variability: Phenomena, impacts and mechanisms . Int. J

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Ludovic Bouilloud, Katia Chancibault, Béatrice Vincendon, Véronique Ducrocq, Florence Habets, Georges-Marie Saulnier, Sandrine Anquetin, Eric Martin, and Joel Noilhan

1. Introduction The western Mediterranean region is regularly affected by devastating flash-flood events, particularly during autumn. These flash-floods have been responsible for human casualties and severe infrastructure damage. All the areas located close to the Mediterranean Sea are concerned by this phenomenon. In southern France, several extreme precipitation events associated with severe flash-floods have occurred during recent decades (see Nuissier et al. 2008 ). This area is

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S. Nandargi and O. N. Dhar

northwest Himalayan region The northwest India and the northwest Himalayan regions are particularly prone to vagaries of severe weather situations causing severe floods, disruption of communications, loss of human lives, etc. every year. This region is particularly influenced by western disturbances that originate from extratropics in the Mediterranean and Caspian seas and travel to Indian region mostly during winter season, giving snowfall, rainfall, and chilly weather conditions. On average, five to

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