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Mark A. Hemer, Xiaolan L. Wang, Ralf Weisse, and Val R. Swail

establish a community working group focused on coordinated ocean-wave climate projections (COWCLIP) created an opportunity to discuss the current status of international activities in wind-wave climate research. Here, we document the community perspective of key scientific questions, challenges, and recommendations relevant to wind-waves in a changing climate. Four themes are addressed: historical wave climate variability and change, global wave climate projections, regional wave climate projections

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Deborah J. Bathke, Holly R. Prendeville, Aaron Jacobs, Richard Heim, Rick Thoman, and Brian Fuchs

); allowing time for small group discussions related to the effects of drought and their interconnectedness to other aspects of human and natural systems; including a variety of viewpoints through diversity in demographics, cultural backgrounds, and interests (e.g., federal, state, and local agencies, Native communities, academia, and the private sector); and extending engagement beyond the meeting with continued feedback on developing regional drought metrics. FINDINGS. Drought awareness and education. A

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Hao He, Hailong Wang, Zhaoyong Guan, Haishan Chen, Qiang Fu, Muyin Wang, Xiquan Dong, Chunguang Cui, Likun Wang, Bin Wang, Gang Chen, Zhanqing Li, and Da-Lin Zhang

spatially and temporally. Thus, products from data assimilation and model simulations are the major tools to study changes in and over the ocean. Progress in ocean observation, data assimilation, and climate model simulations [including CMIPs, NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Numerical Simulations (LENS), and the high-resolution WRF regional climate model] were highlighted. Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability based on LENs was discussed. Arctic sea ice

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Steven C. Sherwood, Sandrine Bony, Olivier Boucher, Chris Bretherton, Piers M. Forster, Jonathan M. Gregory, and Bjorn Stevens

observations. We can, however, look for these physical effects in quantities other than the TOA radiative flux. Notably, we can consider the direct impact of a CO 2 change on precipitation in the absence of any global-mean (or ocean mean) change. We should note, however, that because precipitation patterns are sensitive to small changes in the temperature pattern, we would expect regional precipitation changes to be relatively forcing dependent even in the absence of adjustments—for example, a forcing

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Ibrahim Hoteit, Yasser Abualnaja, Shehzad Afzal, Boujemaa Ait-El-Fquih, Triantaphyllos Akylas, Charls Antony, Clint Dawson, Khaled Asfahani, Robert J. Brewin, Luigi Cavaleri, Ivana Cerovecki, Bruce Cornuelle, Srinivas Desamsetti, Raju Attada, Hari Dasari, Jose Sanchez-Garrido, Lily Genevier, Mohamad El Gharamti, John A. Gittings, Elamurugu Gokul, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Daquan Guo, Bilel Hadri, Markus Hadwiger, Mohammed Abed Hammoud, Myrl Hendershott, Mohamad Hittawe, Ashok Karumuri, Omar Knio, Armin Köhl, Samuel Kortas, George Krokos, Ravi Kunchala, Leila Issa, Issam Lakkis, Sabique Langodan, Pierre Lermusiaux, Thang Luong, Jingyi Ma, Olivier Le Maitre, Matthew Mazloff, Samah El Mohtar, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Trevor Platt, Larry Pratt, Naila Raboudi, Marie-Fanny Racault, Dionysios E. Raitsos, Shanas Razak, Sivareddy Sanikommu, Shubha Sathyendranath, Sarantis Sofianos, Aneesh Subramanian, Rui Sun, Edriss Titi, Habib Toye, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Panagiotis Vasou, Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli, Yixin Wang, Fengchao Yao, Peng Zhan, and George Zodiatis

their overall duration (∼4 weeks) ( Gittings et al. 2018 , 2019 ). Satellite-derived estimates of phytoplankton size structure are in good agreement with the in situ measurements, and also capture the spatial variability related to regional mesoscale dynamics ( Gittings et al. 2019b ). iReds outputs were also used along with in situ and satellite observations to investigate the basin ecological responses to the combined effects of biogeochemical and physical environmental stressors ( Ellis et al

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Andrew D. Gronewold and Vincent Fortin

Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER), and Environment Canada (EC) convened a workshop on Great Lakes hydrological modeling with an emphasis on improving regional hydrological and hydrodynamic science. Workshop presentations and discussions collectively underscored the following three motivating themes for current and future research: utilizing investments in monitoring infrastructure and model development from the recently completed International Upper Great Lakes Study

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David Huard, Diane Chaumont, Travis Logan, Marie-France Sottile, Ross D. Brown, Blaise Gauvin St-Denis, Patrick Grenier, and Marco Braun

), climate services “include the provision of data, data summaries and statistical analyses and predictions as well as tailored information products, scientific studies and expert advice delivered with ongoing support and user engagement.” In the United States this role is played by regional climate centers created in the 1990s under the purview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; www.noaa.gov/ ) to provide, in tandem with Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments ( Pulwarty

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Elizabeth J. Kendon, Nikolina Ban, Nigel M. Roberts, Hayley J. Fowler, Malcolm J. Roberts, Steven C. Chan, Jason P. Evans, Giorgia Fosser, and Jonathan M. Wilkinson

change . Climate Dyn. , 42 , 2183 – 2199 , doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1789-6 . 10.1007/s00382-013-1789-6 Argueso , D. , J. P. Evans , A. J. Pitman , and A. Di Luca , 2015 : Effects of city expansion on heat stress under climate change conditions . PLoS One , 10 , e0117066, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117066 . 10.1371/journal.pone.0117066 Ban , N. , J. Schmidli , and C. Schar , 2014 : Evaluation of the convection-resolving regional climate modeling approach in decade

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Tandong Yao, Yongkang Xue, Deliang Chen, Fahu Chen, Lonnie Thompson, Peng Cui, Toshio Koike, William K.-M. Lau, Dennis Lettenmaier, Volker Mosbrugger, Renhe Zhang, Baiqing Xu, Jeff Dozier, Thomas Gillespie, Yu Gu, Shichang Kang, Shilong Piao, Shiori Sugimoto, Kenichi Ueno, Lei Wang, Weicai Wang, Fan Zhang, Yongwei Sheng, Weidong Guo, Ailikun, Xiaoxin Yang, Yaoming Ma, Samuel S. P. Shen, Zhongbo Su, Fei Chen, Shunlin Liang, Yimin Liu, Vijay P. Singh, Kun Yang, Daqing Yang, Xinquan Zhao, Yun Qian, Yu Zhang, and Qian Li

vorticity and anomalous potential vorticity forcing near the tropopause within the westerly flow. These effects enhanced the meridional circulation of the Asian summer monsoon and influenced circulation in the Northern Hemisphere ( Wu et al. 2016 ; Y. M. Liu et al. 2013 ). Moreover, analysis of the results from the regional climate model (RCM) experiments with and without a diurnal cycle of solar radiation show that a diurnal variation in solar radiation increases the sensible heat flux at the ground

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Chih-Pei Chang, Richard H. Johnson, Kyung-Ja Ha, Daehyun Kim, Gabriel Ngar-Cheung Lau, Bin Wang, Michael M. Bell, and Yali Luo

monsoon, some of the most intense convection and thunderstorms occur as a result of strong diurnal forcing during the build-up and break periods instead of the active period of the monsoon. Reviews of regional processes contributing to localized flooding include the diurnally driven circulations and topographic effects in a flash-flood thunderstorm over the Taipei basin, the regional- and synoptic-scale conditions associated with heavy precipitation systems over the Amazon and southern South America

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