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Viviana Maggioni, Humberto J. Vergara, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Dimitrios Stampoulis

1. Introduction Current runoff prediction systems integrate precipitation measurements into hydrological models that simulate river discharges at the watershed scale either distributed across the basin or as lumped values at the catchment outlet. As observations from rain gauges are nonexistent or sparse over several regions of the globe, remotely sensed rainfall measurements offer a unique and viable alternative source of forcing data for hydrological models (e.g., Su et al. 2008 ; Li et al

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F. Martin Ralph, Jason M. Cordeira, Paul J. Neiman, and Mimi Hughes

1. Introduction The availability and management of water supply in California’s north Central Valley (CV) along the upper Sacramento River is strongly influenced by variability in cool-season precipitation, snowpack, and streamflow in the northern Sierra Nevada and Mt. Shasta–Trinity Alps regions. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR), and other water managers who seek to gauge water supply, closely monitor the precipitation in this region using daily precipitation totals averaged

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H. F. Dacre, O. Martínez-Alvarado, and C. O. Mbengue

cyclone airflows into regions of convergence and ascent and thus to illustrate the relationship between warm conveyor belts and atmospheric rivers. There is some debate in the literature regarding the relationship between warm conveyor belts and atmospheric rivers. To avoid confusion in this paper, we first clarify what we understand by these terms. An atmospheric river is a long, narrow, and transient corridor of strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Ralph et al. 2017 ). They are identified using

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Qian Cao, Alexander Gershunov, Tamara Shulgina, F. Martin Ralph, Ning Sun, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for most floods and flood damages along the U.S. West Coast (e.g., Ralph et al. 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Barth et al. 2017 ; Konrad and Dettinger 2017 ; Corringham et al. 2019 ). Over the past decade, several studies have examined the potential impact of climate change on AR landfalling activity in this region, in order to better project the changes in extreme precipitation associated with ARs. Using seven

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Maximiliano Viale, Raúl Valenzuela, René D. Garreaud, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction As first identified by Newell et al. (1992) , atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long and narrow corridors of strong water vapor transport usually located ahead of cold fronts over the oceans. As a result, ARs are identified as synoptic-scale transient flow features linked to extratropical cyclones that tend to occur in storm tracks ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ). Aircraft-based observations across cold fronts over the northeast Pacific, combined with new satellite measurements of

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Ye Tian, Yue-Ping Xu, Martijn J. Booij, and Guoqing Wang

different scenarios. Arnell (2003) used a macrohydrological model to study the effects of emissions scenarios on river runoff at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The results indicated that the pattern of change in runoff is largely determined by simulated changes in precipitation. Similar results have also been obtained by other studies, which show that changes of runoff are proportional with the changes in rainfall ( Boorman and Sefton 1997 ). Gosain et al. (2011) used a single scenario (A1B

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Emily A. Slinskey, Paul C. Loikith, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, and Andrew Martin

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long, narrow regions of strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ) responsible for a multitude of hydrometeorological impacts ( Guan et al. 2010 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Moore et al. 2012 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Mahoney et al. 2016 ). Typically associated with a low-level jet (LLJ) ahead of the cold front in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone ( AMS 2017 ), ARs cover only

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Rui Sun, Xueqin Zhang, Yang Sun, Du Zheng, and Klaus Fraedrich

1. Introduction The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the main water source for several major rivers in Asia and for large amounts of lakes, glaciers, permafrost areas, and wetlands ( Shen and Chen 1996 ; Luosang 2005 ). The alpine glaciers and inland lakes are key indicators of climatic change because their expansion or contraction reflects changes of water and heat balance conditions in mountainous regions ( Shi and Ren 1990 ). With the significant warming over the plateau during the past decades

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Julian Brimelow, Kit Szeto, Barrie Bonsal, John Hanesiak, Bohdan Kochtubajda, Fraser Evans, and Ronald Stewart

1. Introduction During the spring and summer of 2011, the Assiniboine River basin (ARB; Fig. 1 ) in Canada experienced an unprecedented and devastating flood. The flood was exceptional in terms of both the volume of water and its longevity, and it was rated as Canada’s number one weather event for 2011 ( Phillips 2012 ). Fig . 1. Location of the ARB (red boundary) study area. Locations of stream gauges and cities are shown by colored symbols. Numbers represent the Assiniboine River (1), Qu

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William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and James McNamara

the atmosphere, relatively little research has considered the impact of initial land surface snow conditions in the context of numerical weather prediction or coupled land–atmosphere modeling. In this study, we develop a suite of numerical experiments to examine how initial land surface snow conditions [both the snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered area (SCA)] control subsequent land surface forcings during both ambient conditions and weather consistent with an atmospheric river (AR

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