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Parker MacCready, W. Rockwell Geyer, and Hans Burchard

entering the estuary whose salinity is altered by mixing before exiting. Recent research has shown that the physics driving the exchange flow can have surprising complexity ( Geyer and MacCready 2014 ) with the momentum input of tides or wind being important. However, from the earliest analyses ( Knudsen 1900 ; Pritchard 1954 ; Hansen and Rattray 1965 ; Chatwin 1976 ; Walin 1977 ) onward it has been clear that the creation of mixed water is of central importance. This is most clearly evident in the

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Yuzhu You

2778 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUMI~ 2~Salinity Variability and Its Role in the Barrier-Layer Formation during TOGA-COARE Ytrz~ro Yot~School of Earth Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia(Manuscript received 29 July 1994, in final form 8 May 1995)ABSTRACT During the intensive observation period of TOGA-COARE between November 1992 and

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Kanako Sato and Toshio Suga

identified from a climatological map based on the Grid Point Value of Monthly Objective Analysis for Argo data (MOAA GPV) dataset ( Hosoda et al. 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). This global 1° grid dataset of monthly temperature and salinity distributions has been estimated from available profiles of Argo float, Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) buoy, and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, using the two-dimensional optimal interpolation method on pressure levels from the surface to 2000 dbar and on

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Sydney Levitus

322 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Annual Cycle of Salinity and Salt Storage in the World Ocean SYDNEY LEVITUSGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NO.4A, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542(Manuscrip~ received 19 June 1985, in final form 17 September 1985) ABSTRACT The annual cycle of salinity in the upper 500 m of the world ocean is desadbed, based on climatologicalseasonal

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Leela M. Frankcombe and Henk A. Dijkstra

the models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). This prompts the question as to whether natural variability may be enhancing anthropogenically induced changes and, if so, what mechanisms may be responsible. The study of multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean also leads to questions about variability in the Arctic. Temperature and salinity anomalies from the North Atlantic may propagate into the Arctic and vice versa, connecting

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Bo Qiu and Shuiming Chen

transitions, the role played by the nonlinear mesoscale eddies in determining the amplitude of the KE jet migration and the strength of the recirculation gyre is yet to be fully quantified ( Berloff et al. 2007 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Pierini et al. 2009 ; Qiu and Chen 2010 ; Nakano and Ishikawa 2010 ). Decadal modulations in the KE’s dynamic state can exert a significant impact on regional water mass formation and transformation processes. Using available hydrographic and profiling float temperature–salinity

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E. P. W. Horne and J. M. Toole

1122 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 10Sensor Response Mismatches and Lag Correction Techniques for Temperature. Salinity ProfilerS;t E. P. W. HORNE: AND J, M. TOOLEaWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I January 1980, in final form 2 April 1980)ABSTRACT Salinity.temperature-depth profilers measure temperature directly but infer salinity from

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C. O. Dufour, J. Le Sommer, T. Penduff, B. Barnier, and M. H. England

strong interest in long-term variability and change in water-mass properties, and therefore it is useful to filter out the variability associated with ACC frontal motion. Sun and Watts (2002a) approached this by projecting the temperature and salinity fields from six repeat hydrographic surveys along the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) SR3 section onto a baroclinic streamfunction coordinate, defined as the dynamic height at 1000 dbar relative to 3000 dbar. The time mean fields obtained

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Yoeri M. Dijkstra and Henk M. Schuttelaars

1. Introduction The salinity structure in estuaries is classically described as well mixed, partially mixed, or salt wedge ( Pritchard 1955 ). These different salinity structures are driven by different dominant balances of physical processes and therefore have different dependencies on estuarine parameters such as depth and river discharge. The basis of our understanding of these dependencies comes from idealized subtidal width-averaged models under constant forcing (steady state). It is well

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Benjamin K. Johnson, Frank O. Bryan, Semyon A. Grodsky, and James A. Carton

1. Introduction The broad patterns of surface layer salinity (SLS) are set by the interaction of surface waters with the atmosphere ( Wüst 1935 ). The descending branch of the Hadley cell drives anticyclonic flow over the ocean basins, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation, elevating SLS and creating six subtropical salinity maxima (hereinafter S max ). Five of the S max lie primarily in the open ocean: the Pacific and Atlantic S max are located around 25°N and 20°S; the south Indian

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