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Sydney Levitus

322 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Annual Cycle of Salinity and Salt Storage in the World Ocean SYDNEY LEVITUSGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NO.4A, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542(Manuscrip~ received 19 June 1985, in final form 17 September 1985) ABSTRACT The annual cycle of salinity in the upper 500 m of the world ocean is desadbed, based on climatologicalseasonal

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E. P. W. Horne and J. M. Toole

1122 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 10Sensor Response Mismatches and Lag Correction Techniques for Temperature. Salinity ProfilerS;t E. P. W. HORNE: AND J, M. TOOLEaWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I January 1980, in final form 2 April 1980)ABSTRACT Salinity.temperature-depth profilers measure temperature directly but infer salinity from

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Benjamin K. Johnson, Frank O. Bryan, Semyon A. Grodsky, and James A. Carton

1. Introduction The broad patterns of surface layer salinity (SLS) are set by the interaction of surface waters with the atmosphere ( Wüst 1935 ). The descending branch of the Hadley cell drives anticyclonic flow over the ocean basins, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation, elevating SLS and creating six subtropical salinity maxima (hereinafter S max ). Five of the S max lie primarily in the open ocean: the Pacific and Atlantic S max are located around 25°N and 20°S; the south Indian

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Max Yaremchuk, Julian McCreary Jr., Zuojun Yu, and Ryo Furue

deep Mindoro Strait, almost all of the water for the Indonesian Throughflow entered the Indonesian Seas through the Mindoro Strait, rather than from near the equator (R. Furue 2006, personal communication). Based on climatological data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001 ( WOA01 ) ( Conkright et al. 2002 ), a prominent feature of the SCS is a subsurface salinity maximum at a depth of 150–200 m ( Fig. 2 ; thin dashed curve), which results from the presence of North Pacific tropical water (NPTW) within

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Joseph M. D’Addezio, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Ebenezer S. Nyadjro, and V. S. N. Murty

1. Introduction The northern Indian Ocean (NIO) exhibits a unique dipolar sea surface salinity (SSS) structure with its basin split between the salty Arabian Sea (AS) and the fresher Bay of Bengal (BoB). While both basins share the same latitude band and are affected by the semiannually reversing monsoonal winds, their salinity structures differ greatly. The AS is dominated by higher evaporation and lower precipitation regimes and is the main outflow region for the high salinity waters of both

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Jenson V. George, P. N. Vinayachandran, and Anoop A. Nayak

1. Introduction The Arabian Sea (AS) and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are the western and eastern embayments of the northern Indian Ocean situated at a similar latitude but characterized by intense evaporation and heavy precipitation, respectively ( Shetye et al. 1991 , 1996 ; Shenoi et al. 2002 ; Gordon et al. 2016 ). An excess of evaporation over precipitation in the AS results in higher surface salinity (>35), and heavy rainfall and river runoff in the BoB freshen the surface layer with

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Trevor J. McDougall and David R. Jackett

1. Introduction Oceanographers traditionally study water masses on the salinity–potential temperature diagram because source waters can often be identified on this diagram and turbulent mixing processes are assumed to occur along straight lines (since both salinity and potential temperature are usually assumed to be conservative). For example, Iselin (1939) noted the similarity between the S – θ structure of the surface water in late winter to the S – θ curve obtained from vertical casts

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Yeon S. Chang, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Hartmut Peters, and Xiaobiao Xu

1. Introduction Most deep and intermediate water masses of the World Ocean originate via overflows from marginal and polar seas. While flowing down the continental slope, these water masses entrain ambient waters such that the turbulent mixing strongly modifies the temperature ( T ), salinity ( S ), and equilibrium depth of the so-called product water masses. As the mixing takes place over small space and time scales, it needs to be parameterized in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs

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G. T. Needler and R. A. Heath

J~NUARY1975 G. T. NEEDLER AND R. A. HEATH 173Diffusion Coefficients Calculated from the Mediterranean Salinity Anomaly in the North Atlantic Ocean~ G. T. NEEDLER Atlantic Oceanographic Laboratory, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada R. A. HEATIt New Zealand Oceanographic Institute, Wellington, lgew Zealand (Manuscript received 28 June

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Kanako Sato and Toshio Suga

identified from a climatological map based on the Grid Point Value of Monthly Objective Analysis for Argo data (MOAA GPV) dataset ( Hosoda et al. 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). This global 1° grid dataset of monthly temperature and salinity distributions has been estimated from available profiles of Argo float, Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) buoy, and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, using the two-dimensional optimal interpolation method on pressure levels from the surface to 2000 dbar and on

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