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Trevor J. McDougall and David R. Jackett

1. Introduction Oceanographers traditionally study water masses on the salinity–potential temperature diagram because source waters can often be identified on this diagram and turbulent mixing processes are assumed to occur along straight lines (since both salinity and potential temperature are usually assumed to be conservative). For example, Iselin (1939) noted the similarity between the S – θ structure of the surface water in late winter to the S – θ curve obtained from vertical casts

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Yeon S. Chang, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Hartmut Peters, and Xiaobiao Xu

1. Introduction Most deep and intermediate water masses of the World Ocean originate via overflows from marginal and polar seas. While flowing down the continental slope, these water masses entrain ambient waters such that the turbulent mixing strongly modifies the temperature ( T ), salinity ( S ), and equilibrium depth of the so-called product water masses. As the mixing takes place over small space and time scales, it needs to be parameterized in ocean general circulation models (OGCMs

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Sydney Levitus

322 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Annual Cycle of Salinity and Salt Storage in the World Ocean SYDNEY LEVITUSGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NO.4A, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542(Manuscrip~ received 19 June 1985, in final form 17 September 1985) ABSTRACT The annual cycle of salinity in the upper 500 m of the world ocean is desadbed, based on climatologicalseasonal

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Kanako Sato and Toshio Suga

identified from a climatological map based on the Grid Point Value of Monthly Objective Analysis for Argo data (MOAA GPV) dataset ( Hosoda et al. 2008 ) ( Fig. 1 ). This global 1° grid dataset of monthly temperature and salinity distributions has been estimated from available profiles of Argo float, Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) buoy, and conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, using the two-dimensional optimal interpolation method on pressure levels from the surface to 2000 dbar and on

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E. P. W. Horne and J. M. Toole

1122 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 10Sensor Response Mismatches and Lag Correction Techniques for Temperature. Salinity ProfilerS;t E. P. W. HORNE: AND J, M. TOOLEaWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I January 1980, in final form 2 April 1980)ABSTRACT Salinity.temperature-depth profilers measure temperature directly but infer salinity from

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Leela M. Frankcombe and Henk A. Dijkstra

the models in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). This prompts the question as to whether natural variability may be enhancing anthropogenically induced changes and, if so, what mechanisms may be responsible. The study of multidecadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean also leads to questions about variability in the Arctic. Temperature and salinity anomalies from the North Atlantic may propagate into the Arctic and vice versa, connecting

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Benjamin K. Johnson, Frank O. Bryan, Semyon A. Grodsky, and James A. Carton

1. Introduction The broad patterns of surface layer salinity (SLS) are set by the interaction of surface waters with the atmosphere ( Wüst 1935 ). The descending branch of the Hadley cell drives anticyclonic flow over the ocean basins, causing evaporation to exceed precipitation, elevating SLS and creating six subtropical salinity maxima (hereinafter S max ). Five of the S max lie primarily in the open ocean: the Pacific and Atlantic S max are located around 25°N and 20°S; the south Indian

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Bo Qiu and Shuiming Chen

transitions, the role played by the nonlinear mesoscale eddies in determining the amplitude of the KE jet migration and the strength of the recirculation gyre is yet to be fully quantified ( Berloff et al. 2007 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Pierini et al. 2009 ; Qiu and Chen 2010 ; Nakano and Ishikawa 2010 ). Decadal modulations in the KE’s dynamic state can exert a significant impact on regional water mass formation and transformation processes. Using available hydrographic and profiling float temperature–salinity

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C. O. Dufour, J. Le Sommer, T. Penduff, B. Barnier, and M. H. England

strong interest in long-term variability and change in water-mass properties, and therefore it is useful to filter out the variability associated with ACC frontal motion. Sun and Watts (2002a) approached this by projecting the temperature and salinity fields from six repeat hydrographic surveys along the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) SR3 section onto a baroclinic streamfunction coordinate, defined as the dynamic height at 1000 dbar relative to 3000 dbar. The time mean fields obtained

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Jenson V. George, P. N. Vinayachandran, and Anoop A. Nayak

1. Introduction The Arabian Sea (AS) and the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are the western and eastern embayments of the northern Indian Ocean situated at a similar latitude but characterized by intense evaporation and heavy precipitation, respectively ( Shetye et al. 1991 , 1996 ; Shenoi et al. 2002 ; Gordon et al. 2016 ). An excess of evaporation over precipitation in the AS results in higher surface salinity (>35), and heavy rainfall and river runoff in the BoB freshen the surface layer with

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