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forces are exhausted and they are dissipated.The explanatory hypotheses siiggested by Mr. Parker in therest of his article are suggestive and interesting, but need afurther elaboration before arriving a t a satisfactory solutionof the problem.* * * * * * *P o --SNOW ROLLERS.Mr. T. B. Jennings, section director, in his report of theKansas section for January, says :A decidedly unusual phenomenon occurred in Saline County during the snowstorm on tire l4th, which would indicate that the conditions which

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C. R. JORDAN

Montana, Idsho, Washington, and Oregon.8 Wyomfng, Colorado, Utah, northern Nevada, and northern California.1 Southern California, southern Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and extreme westTennessee.Texas.Missouri Basin-Flooding occurred along the Repub- lican River from Bloomington, Nebr., to Clay Center, Rans.; the smaller tributaries of the Republican River; the Saline River; and the Smoky Hill River a t Abilene, Kans. At Bloomington and Guide Rock, Nebr., the Republican reached the highest stages since

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forces are exhausted and they are dissipated.The explanatory hypotheses siiggested by Mr. Parker in therest of his article are suggestive and interesting, but need afurther elaboration before arriving a t a satisfactory solutionof the problem.* * * * * * *P o --SNOW ROLLERS.Mr. T. B. Jennings, section director, in his report of theKansas section for January, says :A decidedly unusual phenomenon occurred in Saline County during the snowstorm on tire l4th, which would indicate that the conditions which

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J. H. SPENCER

geophysical and meterologicaldata of real value was also obtained. Few persons are better qualified by knowledge and experience to write the discussion of these data than the eminent Norwegianoceanographer, Helland-Hansen. The section on physical oceanography and meteorologyhas two major divisions, the test and the tables and plates.The text is further outlined in 10 chapters which coverthe following topics : Introduction, sea surface and air, subsurface temperatures, salinities and densities

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Hans Ngodock and Matthew Carrier

provided by the parent nest. Different radiative options are used at the open boundaries depending on the model state variables: a modified Orlanski radiative model is used for the tracer fields (temperature and salinity), an advective model for the zonal velocity u , a zero gradient condition for the meridional velocity υ as well as the barotropic velocities, and the Flather boundary conditions for elevation. 3. The 4DVAR system a. The cost function For the sake of clarity, the model equations

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Jingzhe Sun, Zhengyu Liu, Feiyu Lu, Weimin Zhang, and Shaoqing Zhang

) is used. Reanalysis II is recognized as an improved version of Reanalysis I and thus can be used as a better approximation to the real world than the previous version. To provide independent reference data for the ocean, the EN4.2.1 quality-controlled ocean temperature and salinity analysis from the Met Office Hadley Centre ( Good et al. 2013 ) as well as the SODA3.4.2 reanalysis from the University of Maryland ( Carton et al. 2018 ) are used for validation. EN4.2.1 is a statistical objective

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or two abovethose of the Gulf Stream. With the quieter conditionsof the following week (fig. 24), Key West temperaturesshot up 2 O , and the surface of the Gulf Stream rose lo,while daily ranges increased to 3, or 3 O . The highest temperatures, May 23 and 23, occurred between 2 :30and 4:OO p. m.Five temperature, density, and salinity profiles run across the Gulf Stream between Key West and Hahanaand between Miami and Nassau by the writer, in April, 1929, brought out the following facts: (1) Reef

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. The most destructive of these tornadoes occurred in Pulaski County, particularly Little Rock, at 850 p. m. I n Littlr Rock proper, the track of the storm began in the vicinity of 12th and Battery Sts. and ran to the Arkansas River iust east of Main St. Pronertv damage was confined Spring, Saline, Grant. Ar- kansas, Pulaski, Carroll, and Randolph. C'. rinribdry IO brokrb plate glass windows andsigns. although a wall of a uilding on Scott Bt. collapsed. hadly damapinx acveral parked automo- biles

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James A. Carton and Benjamin S. Giese

dataset consists primarily of temperature and salinity profile data whose distribution (dominated by temperature) is concentrated along shipping routes in the Northern Hemisphere and in some coastal regions. Beginning in 1981 continuous global remote sensing of SST began with the deployment of infrared Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors aboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites. In recent years there has been a proliferation of data

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Dingming Hu and Yi Chao

model layer, s = ρ and e represents diapycnal velocity, which is given as ( Hu 1991 ; Hu 1996a ) where α [=−(1/ ρ 0 )∂ ρ /∂ θ ] and β [=(1/ ρ 0 )∂ ρ /∂ S ] are, respectively, thermal expansion and haline contraction coefficients, and N 2 [= g (− α ∂ θ /∂ z + β ∂ S /∂ z )] is the buoyancy frequency. Equation (11) states that diapycnal velocity in the present model is the result of isopycnal and diapycnal mixing of potential temperature and salinity

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