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Robert G. Fleagle and Wendell A. Nuss

mixed layer. Ofcourse, the storms are likely also to stimulate enhancedturbulent mixing and secondary circulations withinthe mixed layer; these processes may have a largereffect on depth of the thermocline than the effect ofEkman pumping, with the net result of deepening ofthe thermocline. This was evidently the case duringSTREX, for the thermocline deepened from ~60 to90 m during the six week period. The relation of surface divergence to mean divergence for the atmospheric boundary layer has

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Anthony C. Hirst

important in thedevelopment/decay of equatorial SST anomalies during the ENSO cycle; namely, zonal temperature advection, modulation of vertical temperature advectionby the depth of the thermocline, and damping of SSTanomalies by, for example, anomalous surface heat flux(e.g., Gill, 1983; Zebiak and Cane, 1983; Harrison andSchopf, 1984). Thermodynamic limits of this mostgeneral case correspond to, first, the models of Gill(1985) and Rennick (1983), second, the model of Philander et al. (1984), and

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Geoffrey Gebbie, Ian Eisenman, Andrew Wittenberg, and Eli Tziperman

chaotic in a parameter regime that is damped without the WWBs. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of modulation of WWBs by SST with a more complete ocean model and with a more realistic representation of WWBs than the work of Eisenman et al. (2005) . Here, we use a hybrid coupled model—an ocean general circulation model coupled to a statistical atmosphere—rather than the simpler Cane–Zebiak model. The OGCM has enhanced resolution in the equatorial band and the upper ocean to

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J. David Neelin

674 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 47, No.$A Hybrid Coupled General Circulation Model for El Niiio Studies J, DAVID NEELINDepartment qf Atmospheric Sciences, U. C.L.A., Los Angeles, California0Vianuscript received 10 August 1989, in final form 2 Nov~mber 1989)ABSTRACT A' model is developed for tropical air-sea interaction studies, which is intermediate in complexity betweenthe

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Nicholas E. Graham, Tim P. Barnett, Robert M. Chervin, Michael E. Schlesinger, and Ulrich Schlese

surfacetemperatures (SSTs) including thermocline depth, Corresponding author address: Dr. Nicholas E. Graham, ScrippsInstitution of Oceanography, Climate Research Group, A-024, LaJolla, CA 92093.currents, and surface fluxes. Sea surface temperaturesar.e, in turn, one of the key boundary conditions affecting the atmospheric circulation and the distributionof large-scale convection in the tropics. Thus,. the suecess of coupled ocean-atmosphere models'in studyingthe global climate in general, and such interannua

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Roger A. Pielke and Xubin Zeng

, most of the temporal variation in the intensity of global circulation occurs at shorter time periods, with less variability in magnitude at .the longer time scales of centuries. For the situation with a seasonally varying value of F, it is seen from Fig. 2 that the largest contributions -6 -4 Log fi (cycle/cloy)FIG. 2. Same a.s Fig. 1 except that F varies as in Eq, ( 5 ).to time variations are from the annual cycle and itsharmonics with

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Meizhu Fan and Edwin K. Schneider

) forced an OGCM in the North Atlantic with surface heat flux and wind stress anomalies from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, both together and separately, to isolate the responses of the ocean circulation to the different forcings. Visbeck et al. (2003) reviewed the observational and modeling evidence of the roles of atmospheric forcing and ocean dynamics in NAO-related climate variability and argued for the increasing importance of ocean dynamics at longer time scales. Marshall et al. (2001 , hereafter M

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Kirk Bryan

605physical significance of the interaction of the nonlinearterms in the Munk model with barriers and irregularitiesin the wind stress pattern. Another approach would be to find solutions for morecomplete models in which vertical variations were dealtwith explicitly. Such models would avoid some of theelements of bias in the vertically integrated, nonlinearmodel. They would also serve to link the wind-drivenocean theory with theories for the thermocline and thethermohaline circulation

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Edwin K. Schneider and Meizhu Fan

noise ( Hasselmann 1976 ; Frankignoul and Hasselmann 1977 ), forcing of the ocean by the atmospheric heat flux and wind stress feedbacks to tripole SST anomalies, and advection of the mean temperature by the anomalous oceanic intergyre gyre circulation. Modulations of the mean gyre were argued not to be relevant. A representation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) was included in Marshall et al. (2001) but not in CM01 . Parameter values estimated from observations featured

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Stamen I. Dolaptchiev and Rupert Klein

description and performance for present climate . Climate Dyn. , 16 , 1 – 17 . Phillips , N. A. , 1963 : Geostrophic motion . Rev. Geophys. , 1 , 123 – 175 . Robinson , A. , and H. Stommel , 1959 : The oceanic thermocline and the associated thermohaline circulation . Tellus , 11 , 295 – 308 . Vallis , G. K. , 1996 : Potential vorticity inversion and balanced equations of motion for rotating and stratified flows . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 291 – 322 . Welander , P

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