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Julie M. Thériault, Roy Rasmussen, Eddy Petro, Jean-Yves Trépanier, Matteo Colli, and Luca G. Lanza

1. Introduction The measurement of snowfall is important in various fields of study such as climate variability, transportation, and water resources. Measuring snowfall amount accurately is challenging, however, because of the many sources of uncertainty associated with the weather conditions and technical factors (e.g., Groisman et al. 1991 ; Groisman and Legates 1994 ; Yang et al. 1995 ; Sugiura et al. 2006 ; Rasmussen et al. 2012 ). Accumulated snowfall during the cold season has

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Esther D. Mullens and Renee McPherson

plains and southeastern United States produced widespread mixed winter precipitation. Numerous power outages and hundreds of traffic accidents, road closures, and delays were reported [National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Data ]. Around the nation, approximately three-quarters of state departments of transportation overspent their planned budgets on winter maintenance because of the frequency of winter weather ( Slone 2014 ). Freezing precipitation—especially, freezing rain

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Kimberly L. Elmore, Heather M. Grams, Deanna Apps, and Heather D. Reeves

al. (2014) demonstrate that it is possible for various forms of precipitation to coexist in a small geographical area. The ASOS data give the user little information as to the horizontal extent of a particular form of precipitation. The Meteorological Phenomena Identification Near the Ground (mPING; Elmore et al. 2014 ) project was launched on 19 December 2012 and uses crowd sourcing to provide spatially and temporally dense observations of precipitation type across the United States. These

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Daniel Caya, Sébastien Biner, and René Laprise

analysis. The residency time is treated and archived as any other simulated meteorological variable, therefore allowing computation of its climate diagnostics. Similarly, Gheusi and Stein (2002) studied the flow dynamic in an atmospheric model with three Eulerian passive tracers initialized with the spatial coordinates of each grid cell. In their study, the tracers within the airflow experience the transport processes: advection, subgrid turbulence, and convective transport. This method allows the

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C. D. Whiteman, S. Zhong, W. J. Shaw, J. M. Hubbe, X. Bian, and J. Mittelstadt

1. Introduction A cold pool is a topographically confined, stagnant layer of air that is colder than the air above. Cold pools can be characterized as diurnal, forming during the evening or night and decaying following sunrise the next day, or as persistent, lasting longer than a normal nighttime temperature inversion. Diurnal cold pools are surface-based stable layers that are a common fair weather feature of valley and basin meteorology. Their depth and strength depend largely on the

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Edmund Bromley Jr.

Weather strongly affects air carrier and general aviation operations and the air traffic control system. Accidents, flight delays, airport operations, and fuel economy are only a few of the more significant factors in air transportation that are affected directly by weather phenomena.

Data on the effect of weather on air transportation are presented. The challenges to the aeronautical meteorologist to meet the demands for service are categorized as: the challenge to “do more with less,” to “prove the value of aviation weather service,” and to provide more “tailored” service. An assessment of today's services and capabilities is given, and the progress in meeting these challenges is outlined briefly.

Challenges of tomorrow to the aeronautical meteorologist are anticipated as not changing from today's challenges; however, a shift in emphasis from the type of service provided today is suggested. The need to highlight techniques of value analyses and a role for the American Meteorological Society in meeting this need are suggested.

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S. SethuRaman, P. Michael, W. A. Tuthill, and J. McNeil

An observation system used to study the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal at Digha Beach, West Bengal, India, as part of the International Monsoon Experiments (MONEX 79) is described in this paper. It was a portable system that was designed to facilitate ease in transportation, to be quick to assemble, independent and self-sufficient in power supply, and to operate in remote sites for long periods of time. The experiments consisted of measurements of atmospheric turbulence and fluxes of momentum, heat, and water vapor from a 10 m high coastal meteorological tower. Mean meteorological parameters were measured with an automated electronic weather station. Wind speed and direction profiles in the planetary boundary layer were obtained with pilot balloon soundings.

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David Changnon

Job opportunities for undergraduate meteorology students are decreasing. An innovative course in applied climatology has been designed and tested to help prepare such students for the career options developing in the private sector. Students are trained to use their meteorological knowledge and analytical skills to work interactively with weather-sensitive users in utilities, agribusinesses, water-resource agencies, recreation firms, and transportation companies. The students develop and test climate relationship-decision models in a real-world environment for these organizations. The models they develop bridge existing information “gaps” between climatologists and weather-sensitive managers who 1) do not understand climate information, and/or 2) do not know how to apply it to their environmental or economic decisions. As a result, students receive applied research experience and important “education-to-career” opportunities; that is, students can apply what is learned through direct and often beneficial interactions with decision makers. These efforts address problems similar to those they likely will encounter after employment. Other long-term objectives of this course are to develop a more effective information flow between climatologists and weather-sensitive users and to assist climatologists by identifying the types of needs for climate information.

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Innovative Weather

A New Strategy for Student, University, and Community Relationships

Paul J. Roebber, Michael Westendorf, and G. Richard Meadows

The Innovative Weather program at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee (UWM) is a weather service provider, staffed 24 hours per day and seven days per week by paid upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, a fulltime academic staff member as director of operations, one other full-time-equivalent academic staff member, and one faculty member to oversee the program and manage research activities. Innovative Weather coordinates the needs of a select group of community clients exposed to weather-related risks with the research and operational expertise that exists at the university. Through the program, students broaden their academic studies into the realm of operational and applied research meteorology. Students provide key input to client decisions worth thousands of dollars and learn how to communicate credibly this high-value information.

The program, initiated with fiscal backing from the UWM College of Letters and Sciences, has in two years developed a paying client list that includes major representatives in energy, metropolitan sewage treatment, education, transportation, and the media. By partnering with community clients, new research opportunities and resources become available that leverage traditional funding sources and ensure ongoing student involvement with demonstrated positive impact on student education and students' subsequent career choices. The direct use of the operational tools and products by clients provides important feedback that benefits the research. In addition to the many benefits of the program, the challenges to developing and maintaining such an entity within the fiscal and bureaucratic constraints of a public university are discussed.

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Chad Shouquan Cheng, Heather Auld, Guilong Li, Joan Klaassen, Bryan Tugwood, and Qian Li

Norman (1988) used a similar approach to distinguish winter precipitation types and also found that the regression model was more proficient at differentiating liquid and frozen precipitation (model R 2 = 0.885 and 0.862, respectively) compared to actual freezing rain occurrence ( R 2 = 0.331). Many previous studies have used critical values of the various meteorological parameters to determine when and where particular types of precipitation (e.g., snow, rain, freezing rain, ice pellets) would

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