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Ronald D. Leeper, Michael A. Palecki, and Egg Davis

1. Introduction Precipitation is a fundamental meteorological and climatological variable. Variations in precipitation patterns can disrupt agricultural productivity and in extreme cases foster drought or flood conditions. From 2011 to 2012, natural disasters related to extreme precipitation patterns (droughts and floods) cost the United States over 47 billion dollars ( NOAA 2013 ). These extreme conditions contribute to secondary hazards that include mudslides, disease pandemics, heat waves

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Sirish Uprety and Changyong Cao

1. Introduction Global climate change has been a major concern for scientists, industrialists, politicians, as well as private citizens because it is believed that at least part of the global change is due to anthropogenic activities such as the mass consumption of fossil fuels in industrial activities as well as daily mass transportation. While debates continue about the rate of global change and trends in the different layers of the atmosphere, the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere has been

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David Antoine, Pierre Guevel, Jean-François Desté, Guislain Bécu, Francis Louis, Alec J. Scott, and Philippe Bardey

-France), which deployed an Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS)-type meteorological buoy 2 n mi from the BOUSSOLE site. The distribution of swell heights and swell periods is displayed in Fig. 3a , and the density plot of the wave characteristics (i.e., significant height versus period) is displayed in Fig. 3b . These characteristics allowed determination of the vertical attenuation profile of the effect of swells in order to select the appropriate depth for the main buoyancy of the platform. 3

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Melissa Free and Bomin Sun

time for at least some types of data. Current rules clearly state that clear means no cloud cover at all ( FAA 2001 , sections 12.17b and 16-25; U.S. Air Force 2009 , section 9.2.13). However, the NWS Handbook 7 for manual observations as of 1994 defined clear to include any cloud cover less than 1/10 ( NWS 1994 , 9-4). On the other hand, the Federal Meteorological Handbook for synoptic observations has consistently defined clear skies as those with no cloud cover at all ( NOAA 1988 , 4

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Pekka J. Rossi, Vesa Hasu, Kalle Halmevaara, Antti Mäkelä, Jarmo Koistinen, and Heikki Pohjola

meteorological observations, and they are not able to include reported damage that has already taken place. For example, Bally (2004) introduces the Thunderstorm Interactive Forecasting System (TIFS) used in Australia. TIFS digests the nowcast products of thunderstorm tracks produced by other systems, such as Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting (TITAN; Dixon and Wiener 1993 ) or Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT; Johnson et al. 1998 ), to help the operational

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Stewart G. Cober, George A. Isaac, and Alexei V. Korolev

during field projects ( Guan et al. 2001 ). The value of pilot reports is known to be limited by their nonquantitative assessments of the icing conditions and the bias toward the reporting of positive signals, while field project data tend to be biased toward meteorological conditions with stronger signals and are normally limited to a small number of flights. Assuming that quantitative assessments of icing environments could be down-linked, this would provide a unique opportunity for icing algorithm

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S. F. Zhang, J. C. Wyngaard, J. A. Businger, and S. P. Oncley

these results to carryout a general linearized analysis of the transducer wakeeffects on turbulence spectra. We also suggest a practicalmethod of correcting for these errors. Flow distortion caused by the bulk of any in situsensor can also cause significant errors in velocity measurements (Wyngaard, 1981 b). This apparently has yetto be studied in detail for sonic arrays, although thereare indications (e.g., Kondo and Sato, 1982) that it canbe important.c 1986 American Meteorological Society316

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Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Mizuki Ishida, Koji Iwano, Ryoichi Kurose, and Naoya Suzuki

1. Introduction It is very important to predict the momentum, heat, and mass transfer across the air–sea interface during tropical cyclones, as the transfer mechanism has significant influence on the accuracy of the predictions of future climate change, the intensity of the tropical cyclones, and other meteorological phenomena. In particular, the air–sea momentum, heat, and mass transfer at high wind speeds is significantly affected by wave breaking, and it is therefore essential to understand

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S. Lim, S. Allabakash, B. Jang, and V. Chandrasekar

1. Introduction Weather radars are powerful remote sensing tools for various meteorological applications, such as severe weather monitoring and quantitative precipitation estimation. Over the last two decades, operational radars have been significantly improved by the introduction of dual-polarization capability. Dual-polarization radars have demonstrated the ability to discriminate between different types of hydrometeors. The combination of reflectivity factor at horizontal polarization Z h

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Ian M. Giammanco, Tanya M. Brown, Rosemarie G. Grant, Douglas L. Dewey, Jon D. Hodel, and Robert A. Stumpf

the material properties of natural hail and how they may apply to damage potential upon impact with other materials ( Kim and Kedward 2000 ; Schulson and Duval 2009 ; Swift 2013 ). Meteorological studies have often focused on hail growth processes, understanding the environments that support the growth of large hail, and radar detection of severe hail to support forecast and warning decision-making. The majority of these studies are thoroughly summarized by Knight and Knight (2001) . The

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