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R. C. Musgrave

1. Introduction Coastal trapped waves form a distinct class of wave motions in the ocean, relying on the presence of a topographic waveguide for their propagation. Unlike freely propagating inertia–gravity waves, there are no lower frequency limits for coastal trapped waves, which makes them an important mechanism for the transfer of subinertial energy along coastlines. They are often wind driven (e.g., Clarke 1977 ), but at high latitudes can be tidally driven (e.g., Cartwright 1969 ), and

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Ke Huang, Weiqing Han, Dongxiao Wang, Weiqiang Wang, Qiang Xie, Ju Chen, and Gengxin Chen

responds to the global climate variability and change ( Song and Colberg 2011 ; Balmaseda et al. 2013a ). Wind-driven Kelvin and Rossby waves and Rossby waves reflected from the eastern ocean boundary are observed to be important in causing the semiannual cycle of the surface and subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean ( Wyrtki 1973 ; Anderson and Carrington 1993 ; Schott et al. 1997 ; Reppin et al. 1999 ; Iskandar et al. 2009 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Nagura and McPhaden 2016 ). In

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Zhongxiang Zhao and Matthew H. Alford

superposition is nearly identical to that obtained from harmonic analysis. However, additional information is contained in the separated signals. The model to be solved for is a mode-1 wave propagating in a direction θ relative to the T/P track: where x is the along-track coordinate, t is time, ω 0 is the M 2 tidal frequency, and k 0 is the wavenumber of a mode-1 M 2 internal tide (determined from climatological ocean stratification profiles; see the appendix ). At each along-track location

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Masatoshi Miyamoto, Eitarou Oka, Daigo Yanagimoto, Shinzou Fujio, Maki Nagasawa, Genta Mizuta, Shiro Imawaki, Masao Kurogi, and Hiroyasu Hasumi

considered to be mainly baroclinic planetary Rossby waves, based on its westward phase speed ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ) and nonlinear mesoscale eddies ( Chelton et al. 2011 ). Such surface mesoscale variability transports heat and dissolved materials in the global ocean, with amounts comparable to those by large-scale circulation (e.g., Roemmich and Gilson 2001 ; Dong et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, deep mesoscale variability, which cannot be detected by satellite altimeter, has

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Julien Emile-Geay and Mark A. Cane

less effective than low-latitude winds. Since it is all too easy for the reader to get lost in the mathematical details, it may be worthwhile to give a brief informal account of the approach we will take. We wish to find the ocean’s response to a periodic wind forcing. As in CS81 , we write the solution as a sum of a forced part and a free part. Both are made up of forced or free long equatorial Kelvin waves and long Rossby waves, the only modes that exist in the interior of the basin at low

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Bertrand L. Delorme, Leif N. Thomas, Patrick Marchesiello, Jonathan Gula, Guillaume Roullet, and M. Jeroen Molemaker

calculations from Lumpkin and Speer (2007) showed that much of the zonally integrated diapycnal upwelling that closes the AMOC occurs in the tropical oceans, suggesting that intense mixing takes place in these regions. However, we lack both observational evidence and robust theories that could support the inferences from these inverse models. In a recent paper, Delorme and Thomas (2019 , hereafter DT19 ) showed that surface-generated equatorially trapped waves (ETWs) can energize mixing in the abyss of

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

-rate source term in modeling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1274 – 1298 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , D. Greenslade , and M. L. Banner , 2002 : Impact of a saturation-dependent dissipation source function on operational hindcasts of wind waves in the Australian region. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst. , 8 , 239 – 267 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , M. L. Banner , and I. R. Young , 2003 : Revisiting the Pierson–Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind

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M. W. Roth, M. G. Briscoe, and C. H. McComas III

1234 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Internal Waves in the Upper Ocean M. W. ROTH$ohn Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laborotory, Laurel, MD 20810 M. G. BRtSCOE AND C. H. MCCOMAS lipWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I July 1980, in final form 22 May 1981)ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that the deep-ocean internal-wave field has little

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen and Miguel Onorato

1. Introduction Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a rapid increase in the understanding of the generation of extreme waves in the open ocean. Different mechanisms have been found to be relevant for the formation of such events [see Kharif and Pelinovsky (2003) for a review]. A number of experimental and theoretical works ( Janssen 2003 ; Onorato et al. 2001 , 2004 , 2005 ) have shown that, provided that the spectra are narrow banded and waves are steep, deep-water third

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Ian R. Young, Emmanuel Fontaine, Qingxiang Liu, and Alexander V. Babanin

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is often defined as the region south of 60°S. However, from the point of view of wave climate, this is not a useful definition. Rather, it is more useful to define the Southern Ocean as the region south of the main landmasses of Africa, Australia, and South America and north of the Antarctic ice edge. That is, the region between latitudes of approximately 40° and 60°S. This is an area of ocean of approximately 50 × 10 6 km 2 . As seen in Fig. 11 , the extent

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