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Masatoshi Miyamoto, Eitarou Oka, Daigo Yanagimoto, Shinzou Fujio, Maki Nagasawa, Genta Mizuta, Shiro Imawaki, Masao Kurogi, and Hiroyasu Hasumi

considered to be mainly baroclinic planetary Rossby waves, based on its westward phase speed ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ) and nonlinear mesoscale eddies ( Chelton et al. 2011 ). Such surface mesoscale variability transports heat and dissolved materials in the global ocean, with amounts comparable to those by large-scale circulation (e.g., Roemmich and Gilson 2001 ; Dong et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, deep mesoscale variability, which cannot be detected by satellite altimeter, has

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Julien Emile-Geay and Mark A. Cane

less effective than low-latitude winds. Since it is all too easy for the reader to get lost in the mathematical details, it may be worthwhile to give a brief informal account of the approach we will take. We wish to find the ocean’s response to a periodic wind forcing. As in CS81 , we write the solution as a sum of a forced part and a free part. Both are made up of forced or free long equatorial Kelvin waves and long Rossby waves, the only modes that exist in the interior of the basin at low

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Bertrand L. Delorme, Leif N. Thomas, Patrick Marchesiello, Jonathan Gula, Guillaume Roullet, and M. Jeroen Molemaker

calculations from Lumpkin and Speer (2007) showed that much of the zonally integrated diapycnal upwelling that closes the AMOC occurs in the tropical oceans, suggesting that intense mixing takes place in these regions. However, we lack both observational evidence and robust theories that could support the inferences from these inverse models. In a recent paper, Delorme and Thomas (2019 , hereafter DT19 ) showed that surface-generated equatorially trapped waves (ETWs) can energize mixing in the abyss of

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James C. McWilliams and Juan M. Restrepo

-layer horizontal currents whose convergence causes a vertical divergence (i.e., Ekman pumping), which drives the interior, geostrophically balanced, horizontal circulation in extratropical oceanic gyres. The vertical integral of the total horizontal circulation is the Sverdrup transport. In this simple theory the sea state is ignored. However, surface gravity waves are capable of generating a mean Lagrangian current called the Stokes drift ( Stokes 1847 ). The Stokes drift can affect the large-scale sea state

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

-rate source term in modeling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1274 – 1298 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , D. Greenslade , and M. L. Banner , 2002 : Impact of a saturation-dependent dissipation source function on operational hindcasts of wind waves in the Australian region. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst. , 8 , 239 – 267 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , M. L. Banner , and I. R. Young , 2003 : Revisiting the Pierson–Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen and Miguel Onorato

1. Introduction Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a rapid increase in the understanding of the generation of extreme waves in the open ocean. Different mechanisms have been found to be relevant for the formation of such events [see Kharif and Pelinovsky (2003) for a review]. A number of experimental and theoretical works ( Janssen 2003 ; Onorato et al. 2001 , 2004 , 2005 ) have shown that, provided that the spectra are narrow banded and waves are steep, deep-water third

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P. B. Smit and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction As ocean waves propagate from deep water, onto the continental shelves, and toward coastal areas, their propagation is affected increasingly by interaction with bathymetry and currents, the transition from dominant resonant four-wave interactions to near-resonant three-wave (or triad) interactions and the transformation of organized wave motion into turbulence, heat, and sound in the breaking process close to shore. The ability to model these processes and their effects on wave

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction Over the last several decades, there has been growing recognition from both oceanographic and atmospheric sciences communities that surface waves play a crucial role in the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere interact. Until recently, most of the observational literature on surface waves was driven by studies based on time series of wave measurements at a point (or at a relatively slowly moving mooring) combined with directional information from the dynamics of the

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Peter Sutherland and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction When wind flows over the open sea, it creates surface waves. Energy, momentum, and mass flux between the atmosphere and ocean are all modulated by this wave field ( Melville 1996 ). Although some of the energy and momentum flux input by the wind propagates away as swell, the majority is injected into the water column locally. This results in a turbulent marine boundary layer near the ocean surface, where energy is dissipated by turbulence. This work uses a combination of

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M. W. Roth, M. G. Briscoe, and C. H. McComas III

1234 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Internal Waves in the Upper Ocean M. W. ROTH$ohn Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laborotory, Laurel, MD 20810 M. G. BRtSCOE AND C. H. MCCOMAS lipWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I July 1980, in final form 22 May 1981)ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that the deep-ocean internal-wave field has little

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