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Tetsuzo Yasunari, Kazuyuki Saito, and Kumiko Takata

1. Introduction Monsoons are large-scale circulation systems induced by seasonal differential heating between land and oceans. Variabilities in monsoon systems can therefore be attributed to changing characteristics in energy storage and transfer processes between land, atmosphere, and oceans. Many previous studies have examined the influence of oceans on monsoon systems, focusing particularly on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) changes, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO

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Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Alfred Chang, Ralph Ferraro, Ping-Ping Xie, John Janowiak, Bruno Rudolf, Udo Schneider, Scott Curtis, David Bolvin, Arnold Gruber, Joel Susskind, Philip Arkin, and Eric Nelkin

oceans are considered. Thus, it seems that the standing waves in the NH help produce larger precipitation values over the oceans there, but the drier landmasses in this latitude zone reduce the total precipitation to slightly below the SH ocean and total values, which are nearly the same because of the relative lack of land in that zone. c. Global totals Table 1 contains the global precipitation totals for the GPCP Version 2, along with those for the two conventional climatologies. For the entire

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Cédric H. David, David R. Maidment, Guo-Yue Niu, Zong-Liang Yang, Florence Habets, and Victor Eijkhout

, especially by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), opens potential studies of the evolution of water resources with global change. Using mapped streams and water bodies in LSMs could benefit the resulting assessment of the impact of global change in water resources by providing estimation of changes at the blue-line level. Furthermore, the use of parallel computing is quite common in regional- to global-scale atmospheric and ocean modeling but comparatively infrequent in

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

was favored by warm SST and the vortex growth within the ER wave that spun off from the ITCZ. Fig . 6. The 30-km grid resolution ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis of TCW superimposed by 500- and 850-hPa wind vectors over Australia as well as the Pacific and Indian Oceans during the TC Kelvin (top) at 2000 UTC 17 Feb and (bottom) at 1100 UTC 19 Feb, respectively. Fig . 7. As in Fig. 6 , but for mean vertically integrated moisture divergence superimposed by 500-hPa wind vectors. Figure 8 shows time series of

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Ulrike Romatschke and Robert A. Houze Jr.

long lifetimes and propagating aspect has led to speculation ( Houze 2004 ) that these particular offshore systems may be a gravity wave response, of the type described by Mapes et al. (2003) , to the daytime systems over the high terrain. d. Coastal terrain—Continental side The high terrain of the coastal regions affects precipitation systems differently on their landward compared to their oceanic sides. In IWC, many small systems peaking in the afternoon ( Fig. 14b ) are located inland from the

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Michael G. Bosilovich and Jiun-Dar Chern

1. Introduction When analyzing water cycle intensity, regional variations can be significantly different from the global background (e.g., Bosilovich et al. 2005 ). Precipitation over land is a function of both transport of water from the oceans and the evaporation from the land ( Trenberth et al. 2003 ). The water holding capacity of the vegetation and soil limits land evaporation. Therefore, variations of the land evaporation can affect the surface energy budget, planetary boundary layer

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Tajdarul H. Syed, James S. Famiglietti, and Don P. Chambers

of paramount importance in assessing changes in the earth system. However, integrated global networks of such observations are plagued by numerous technical, political, and economic challenges. Currently, there exists no comprehensive global network for the monitoring of freshwater discharge into the world oceans ( Alsdorf and Lettenmaier 2003 ; Brakenridge et al. 2005 ). To date, the majority of the reported assessments of global discharge are either based on modeled runoff, climatologies of

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Paul X. Flanagan, Jeffrey B. Basara, Jason C. Furtado, and Xiangming Xiao

composite ( Fig. 4c ) depicts a stronger negative anomaly signal occurring in the southwest extending farther to the northwest over the North Pacific Ocean. To further diagnose the differences in the wave structure for the Pattern years, we investigate the υ ( Fig. 5 ) and u ( Fig. 6 ) anomaly fields. The 250-mb υ wind component anomaly Pattern composite ( Fig. 5a ) exhibits a series of statistically significant (denoted by stippling in Fig. 5 ) couplets across Asia and North America

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Kazuyuki Saito, Tetsuzo Yasunari, and Kumiko Takata

the Rossby wave pattern generated by the Tibetan orography and the increased diabetic heating ( Rodwell and Hoskins 1996 ), to decrease total rainy-season precipitation by 60 mm in JJA, and the local vapor source by one-third. b. East Asia Figure 13 shows the impact of land surface conditions on the major sources of water vapor precipitates out in east Asia. The Pacific Ocean is the primary source throughout the year regardless of the surface conditions. The comparable contribution from other

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Yoshiki Fukutomi, Hiromichi Igarashi, Kooiti Masuda, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

). Northern Eurasian hydrology is also considered an important factor controlling the Arctic climate (e.g., Peng and Mysak 1993 ; Bowling et al. 2000 ; Serreze et al. 2001a , 2002 ) and that of the neighboring Asian monsoon area (e.g., Yasunari et al. 1991 ; Kripalani and Kulkarni 1999 ). The water from major Eurasian rivers is recognized as an effective source of freshwater flowing into the Arctic Ocean, [see reviews by Bowling et al. (2000) and Carmack (2000) ]. Atmospheric moisture transport

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