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Ge Peng, Lei Shi, Steve T. Stegall, Jessica L. Matthews, and Christopher W. Fairall

identified in NRC (2001) , long-term and consistent records of temperature are also essential for monitoring and examining the response to those changes and their impact on future climate change ( NRC 2001 ). In this paper, we compare two sets of near-surface air temperature measurements: 1) swath cloud-screened air temperatures at 2-m height (T2m) derived from the intersatellite-calibrated brightness temperatures based on the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements on board the

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Sylvio Luiz Mantelli Neto, Aldo von Wangenheim, Enio Bueno Pereira, and Eros Comunello

pattern variations to the sun according to photometer measurements. EGD- and EGP-derived values could be correlated to surface radiometers to support the evaluation of a radiative surface flux. In that case, a comparison between EGD’s clearness, cloud forcing, and other established time series–based indexes existent in the literature should be investigated. The current methodology is being tested long term at the BSRN São Martinho da Serra station in Southern Brazil. 6. Conclusions The purpose of the

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Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Olivier Jourdan, Jacques Pelon, Mathieu Papazzoni, Régis Dupuy, Jean-Francois Gayet, and Caroline Jouan

. , and Intrieri J. M. , 2004 : Cloud radiative forcing of the Arctic surface: The influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle . J. Climate , 17 , 616 – 628 . Shupe, M. , Matrosov S. Y. , and Uttal T. , 2006 : Arctic mixed-phase cloud properties derived from surface-based sensors at SHEBA . J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 697 – 711 . Shupe, M. , Walden V. , Eloranta E. , Uttal T. , Campbell J. , Starkweather S. , and Shiobara M. , 2011 : Clouds at Arctic

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R. Paul Lawson and William A. Cooper

. Final Report AFGL-TR-32-0283, U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 107 PP.Nicholls, S., E. L. Simmons, N. C. Atkinson and S. D. Rudman, 1988: A comparison of radiometric and immersion temperature measurements in .water clouds. Preprints: Tenth Int. Conf. on Cloud Physics, Bad Homburg, 322-324.Paluch, I. R., 1979: The entrainment mechanism in Colorado cumuli.J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 2467-2478. Politovich, M. K., and W. A. Cooper, 1988: Variability of the su

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Peter V. Hobbs, Nathan T. Funk, Richard R. Weiss Sr., John D. Locatelli, and Kumud R. Biswas

providesmeasurements of the velocities of cloud particlesdown to ~25 cm s-I, even in very low reflectivityclouds. Comparisons of velocities measured with theMPC technique and a conventional (5.5 GHz) Doppler radar show good overall agreement, but withgreater detail provided by the 35 GHz radar.2. The University of Washington 35 GHz radara. General description The University of Washington (UW) 35 GHz radarwas derived from a U.S. Air Force AN/TPQ-11reflectivity radar (Petrocchi and Paulsen, 1966; Paulsen et al

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Roger Marchand, Gerald G. Mace, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian B. McCubbin, Sergey Y. Matrosov, and Matthew D. Shupe

cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 ( D23 ), 32 019 – 32 030 . Woods, C. P. , Stoelinga M. T. , Locatelli J. D. , and Hobbs P. V. , 2005 : Microphysical processes and synergistic interaction between frontal and orographic forcing of precipitation during the 13 December 2001 IMPROVE-2 event over the Oregon Cascades . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 3493 – 3519 . Zhou

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Josep Calbó and Jeff Sabburg

sky cover, and other information such as cloud brokenness, the visibility of the sun disk, and cloud thickness (all of them already covered by previous literature), now cloud type can be estimated. The combination of all this information gives an improved picture of the sky condition, which is very useful for research topics that involve cloud effects on radiative transfer in the atmosphere, such as cloud radiative forcing and its changes in time, and cloud effects on solar radiation in general

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Hyoun-Myoung Cho, Shaima L. Nasiri, Ping Yang, Istvan Laszlo, and Xuepeng “Tom” Zhao

1. Introduction Mineral dust aerosols, one of the major atmospheric aerosol species, are important in climate studies ( Sokolik and Toon 1999 ; Jaffe et al. 1999 ; Husar et al. 2001 ; Prospero et al. 2002 ) through several mechanisms. Mineral dust affects the earth radiation budget directly through absorption, scattering, and emission (in the case of the infrared spectrum) of atmospheric radiation and indirectly by regulating the formation and maintenance of clouds. Recent studies ( Dunion

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C. Rathke and J. Fischer

equivalently the ice water path (IWP), and the effective radius of the cloud droplets or particles because they are used in global climate model parameterizations of the fundamental radiative properties determining the cloud forcing, that is, the cloud albedo and the cloud infrared emissivity ( Stephens et al. 1990 ; Harshvardhan and Espinoza 1995 ). In Eq. (1) , w ( z ) is the liquid or ice water content, z base and z top are the cloud base and top altitudes, and in Eq. (2) , n ( r ) is the

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Jennifer M. Comstock and Kenneth Sassen

1. Introduction Due to the uncertainty of the effects of cirrus clouds on the earth's radiation budget and feedback to atmospheric dynamics ( Liou 1986 ), there has been an increased interest in the retrieval of cirrus macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties using both passive and active remote sensing techniques ( Platt 1973 ; Ou et al. 1993 ; Smith et al. 1993 ; Matrosov et al. 1994 ). Knowledge of cirrus cloud properties and their inherent inhomogeneity will help to improve

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