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M.-H. Rio, R. Santoleri, R. Bourdalle-Badie, A. Griffa, L. Piterbarg, and G. Taburet

estimates of the surface currents can be drawn. This includes altimeters, scatterometers, synthetic aperture radars (SAR), imaging radiometers operating at different wavelengths (microwave, infrared), and spectrometers. Among the remote sensing satellites cited above, altimetry, by providing global, accurate, and repetitive measurements of the sea level, has been by far the most exploited system employed in the study of the variability of ocean surface currents over the last two decades. This is because

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K. S. Gage, J. R. Mcafee, W. L. Ecklund, D. A. Carter, C. R. Williams, P. E. Johnston, and A. C. Riddle

) ABSTRACT After a decade of development, VHF wind profilers are being used for atmospheric research at several locationsin the tropical Pacific. A prototype 50-MHz wind profiler was installed on Christmas Island in 1985 and hasoperated continuously since March 1986 to monitor tropical wind fields in the altitude range 1.8-18 kin. Thispaper presents an overview of the Christmas Island wind profiler and reviews its performance. A survey ofsample wind observations and a brief climatology of the observed

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Neil J. Holbrook and Nathaniel L. Bindoff

Oceanography, Vol. 27, Pergamon, 111–195. 10.1016/0079-6611(91)90015-E Gandin, L. S., 1963: Objective Analysis of Meteorological Fields. (English translation). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 242 pp. Holbrook, N. J., 1994: Temperature variability in the Southwest Pacific Ocean between 1955 and 1988. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sydney, 229 pp. ——, and N. L. Bindoff, 1997: Interannual and decadal temperature variability in the southwest Pacific Ocean between 1955 and 1988. J. Climate

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Libeesh Lukose and Dibyendu Dutta

data, which increases the uncertainty in surface solar irradiance ( You et al. 2013 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ). Bojanowski et al. (2014) and Urraca et al. (2017b) found that the quality of reanalysis data is poorer than satellite-derived products, especially in the hilly and coastal areas. High mountains and rugged terrain introduce an additional source of variability in the solar irradiance assessment through terrain shading, sky view reduction, and elevation variability ( Ruiz-Arias et al. 2011

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H. van Haren, R. Groenewegen, M. Laan, and B. Koster

highly energetic (tidal currents >1 m s −1 ) and “well mixed” environment. In the latter case, several CTD casts were taken for calibration purposes. In general, these “calibrations” are not better than the laboratory calibration, due to the environmental variability, mooring frame vibrations, and flow obstructions. They do provide information about the performance of the NFTS and of the environmental variability that can be resolved. The question of whether a suitable ocean environment for

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Christopher S. Meinen

1. Introduction Hydrographic sampling of the ocean, whether by expendable bathythermograph casts on volunteer observing ships or by conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts on research vessels, has been one of the most powerful and most commonly used techniques in the study of oceanic currents over the past few decades (nearly a century, in fact). Scores, perhaps hundreds, of scientific articles have been written describing ocean fronts and the associated currents solely on the basis of

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Dennis J. Boccippio, William J. Koshak, and Richard J. Blakeslee

below], although the variability of this threshold with time-of-day and across the field of view (FOV) were not specified. The focus of this series of papers is a performance assessment of the OTD and LIS, with emphasis on yielding results applicable for research use and instructive for new instrument design. A complete performance assessment addresses the instruments' accuracy, response, bias, and variance. This study deals with instrument sensitivity and thresholds, the simplest metrics of

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Gregory R. Foltz, Amato T. Evan, H. Paul Freitag, Sonya Brown, and Michael J. McPhaden

relationship with the seasonal cycles of τ dust and rainfall are discussed first, followed by a discussion of longer time-scale variability. The mean seasonal cycles and interannual–decadal variability of the dust-accumulation biases at 15°, 12°, and 8°N along 38°W are shown in Figs. 8 – 13 . At 15°N, the rain-free and swap biases ( B rain and B swap , respectively) and the buoy and NCEP clear-sky biases ( B cs−buoy and B cs−NCEP , respectively) all show a pronounced maximum of 30–35 W m −2 in July

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Michael A. Alfultis and Peter Cornillon

minimizes biasing the means toward years with large data volumes. Second, the interannual variability in the STMW properties can be estimated from the variance of the annual means about their average. Yasuda and Hanawa (1997) used a similar approach in constructing their two decadal climatologies of North Pacific STMW. They found annual seasonal averages in 2° × 2° bins, then averaged the annual means. The slightly coarser bin size used here is needed to ensure reliable estimates of the mean depth and

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Richard D. Rosen, John M. Henderson, and David A. Salstein

rather in using the reanalysis to test the sensitivity of trend estimates to spatial sampling. For this purpose, the reanalysis trends appear suitably realistic. The differences among the sampling strategies in Table 2 are small. Comparing first the difference between SONDE and ALL, in all but one case (NA for DJF) trends for these two samples lie within 0.01 K (decade) −1 of each other, suggesting that the current radiosonde network over CONUS and NA is adequate for estimating midtropospheric

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