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Adam H. Sobel, Chia-Ying Lee, Suzana J. Camargo, Kyle T. Mandli, Kerry A. Emanuel, Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay, and M. Mahakur

not pursue the former question further here. b. Historical tracks In this section we discuss historical cyclone tracks in the Arabian Sea. As geographical context for this and subsequent sections, Fig. 1 shows a map of western India (and southern Pakistan); Mumbai’s location is indicated by the red star, and Maharashtra, the state in which Mumbai is located, is labeled, as are the several surrounding states. Figure 2 shows a map of Mumbai and its surrounding regions. Fig . 1. Map of western

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M. I. Biggerstaff and R. A. Houze Jr.

system.The geographic boundary for each map from 0130to 0430 UTC of the convective region, identified asthe leading area of reflectivity exceeding 35 dBZ, wasthen transferred into the composite coordinate systemusing the method outlined in section 3. Figure 6a showsthe location of the convective region in the compositeframework. The outer curve encloses the area formedby the union of all the transferred geographic boundaries. The composite framework extended slightly beyond the northern end of the

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D. K. Purnell, M. J. Revell, and P. N. McGavin

computations performed by themodel in the performance tests of section 5 is shownby an example simulation on a 5000 km x 3500 kmgrid with 18 layers vertically and a maximum resolution of 30 km over New Zealand. Figure 1 showsstreamlines at an altitude of 300 m and Fig. 2 the projection of wind vectors onto a cross section along theeast coast of New Zealand. The location of this crosssection is marked XY on Fig. 3, which shows the topography and location of grid points in a smaller boxnear New Zealand. A

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Kai-Hon Lau and Ngar-Cheung Lau

scales ranging from 3 to $ days are noted in the power spectra for these locations. The lag-correlation and regression statistics of tropical fluctuations with synoptic time scales are examined.Strong teleeonnectivity and temporal coherence are found over all of the active sites with enhanced vorticityvariance, as well as over the western Atlantic/Caribbean and the Indochinese Peninsula. These results indicatethat a substantial amount of synoptic scale variability in the tropics is associated with

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ALFRED J. HENRY

heading Table ofvations in the beginning the mon 8 y departures werethe observing stations that took place during t f e 29not known. It is fairly in the last respect after 1892, although strictly the homogeneity of therecord is not as great e desired. The exigen- cies of the service at times made it necescary to discon- tinue an o b s e m g station or to remove It a short dls- tance from its oripnal location. Most of the chan es inyears considered were of that order. The original sta- -1 This is a

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James P. McGuirk and Donald A. Douglas

patterns, the relations are developed from an SSW climatology and not from ablocking climatology. The results described herein forma subset of the weather anomalies which occur withblocking, but only blocking coupled with SSW. Thedifference is that blocking, in general, occurs severaltimes per year with widely varying locations and timescales and can be described in terms of only tropospheric mechanisms (Charney and Straus, 1980, forexample), whereas SSW occurs less frequently thanonce every two years

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Anthony G. Barnston and Robert E. Livezey

temporal correlations ina meteorological parameter between one given geographical location and all others in the domain. Thisexercise is repeated using every possible point as thebase point. The locations producing the highest amplitude, best defined versions of uniquely configuredcorrelation fields (called teleconnection patterns) areaccepted as the "centers of action" of the low frequencyvariability. A teleconnection pattern typically includestwo to four main centers of action (including that ofthe

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Zhaoxia Zeng, Sandra E. Yuter, Robert A. Houze Jr., and David E. Kingsmill

cloud water is available at lower concentrations in the weakly buoyant to negatively buoyant environment. The formation of hail represents an extreme of accretion and hence convective microphysical growth. The hail embryo can be either graupel or frozen drops and some storms exhibit both types ( Browning et al. 1976 ). The relative dominance of each apparently depends on storm intensity and geographic location. Hail embryos of graupel dominate in high plains storms ( Dye et al. 1974 ), while frozen

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K. I. Hodges

tessellating the sphere has been considered for various spherical problems, such as finite elements ( Baumgardner and Frederickson 1985 ; Stuhne and Peltier 1996 ), global geographical information systems (GIS; Fekete 1990 ), astronomical information systems ( Fekete et al. 2003 ; Tegmark 1996 ), and spherical wavelets ( Schröder and Sweldens 1995 ). The organization of the spherical triangles into a tree structure linking different levels of the decomposition forms a hierarchical spatial data structure

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Ngar-Cheung Lau and Mary Jo Nath

the WTP in certain geographical regions suggests that the zonally asymmetric nature of the background circulation is an important consideration in understanding this phenomenon. In particular, the behavior of the WTP could be strongly influenced by the configuration of the stationary wave field and the location of the jet streams, and by the occurrence of eddy–mean flow interactions in specific regions. Recently, the barotropic vorticity equation has been used by Anderson (1991) , Branstator and

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