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F. Chevallier and G. Kelly

1. Introduction Operational geostationary satellites provide high resolution (a few kilometers) and frequent (1 h or less) observations of the visible and infrared radiation that is emitted or reflected by a large portion of the earth–atmosphere system. In forecast centers, geostationary imagery is essential for nowcasting. Atmospheric motion winds derived from these data are routinely assimilated ( Velden et al. 1992 ; Schmetz et al. 1993 ; Rohn et al. 2001 ) and the assimilation of clear

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Robert N. Larson

processing used in Fig. 2,increasing amounts of IR radiation measured by thesatellite radiometer are indicated by progressivelydarkening shades from white to black. As a result, cold264 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUblE103Fro. 3. NOAA-3 infrared range VHRR photograph (specially processed) taken the same time as Figs. 1 and 2.high clouds and clouds with significant vertical development often appear very white like

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WILLIAM L. SMITH

)-z (calculated)).June 19675. METHOD OF SOLUTION IN THE PRESENCE OF CLOUDSSince clouds tend to be opaque to infrared radiation,solutions for the temperature and moisture of the lowertroposphere can be obtained only from radiances leavingrelatively clear atmospheric columns. Furthermore, thesolution for the temperature and moisture profiles abovenon-opaque clouds can be obtained only if the heights,amounts, and opacities of the clouds are known. Hence it isdesirable, if not necessary, to utilize only

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Larry M. McMillin, Melvyn E. Gelman, A. Sanyal, and Mojgan Sylva

satellite retrievals. Errors due to infrared cooling atnight were examined first because they were thoughtto be less variable than the errors due to solar radiation.It soon became obvious that the infrared cooling erroris very dependent on the particular profile. Temperature profiles derived from radiosondes aresubject to errors from several soumes. These includeerrors due to the thermal lag of the temperature sensoras well as errors due to differences in energy betweenthe incoming and outgoing

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J-J. Morcrette, H. W. Barker, J. N. S. Cole, M. J. Iacono, and R. Pincus

special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research, 1991, Vol. 96D, No. 5) provided the first opportunity to compare in a systematic way the results of general circulation model (GCM)-type radiation schemes with line-by-line (LBL) models of the infrared radiation transfer and to document their successes and failures. A more extensive description of the characteristics of the early ECMWF schemes can be found in Morcrette (1991) , together with a description of the RT schemes that were originally

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HERBERT H. KIMBALL and IRVING F. HAND

, and (2)selective absorption by at,mospheric gases, principally water vapor. The scattering by pure dry air may becomputed by the use of equat,ions developed by Lord Rayleigh and modified by King (1). Fowle (2 ) has shown the relation between the amount of wat.er vapor inthe atmosphere and the depletion of solar radiation in the.great infrared water-vapor absorption bands of the solar spectrum. There remains, therefore, the absorption bygases other than water vapor, for which Fowle (3) esti- mates

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HERBERT H. KIMBALL

infra-red, and forare included under the curves. Let a=area under the energy curve for a P1anckia.n distribution at the assumed color temperature ofbut wlth the wave-len th scale the same as for A. Here,solar spectrum for wave lengths shorter than 350 mp. It has been assumed that the spectrum of daylight ends, like the solar spectrum, a t 390 mp.Let R-the ratios between the intensity of solar and radiation as given in Table 1.et a-the area of a ex ressed in the same units as A. Then a = A/R, and to

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.The research was supported by thc U.S. Air Force CambridgeResearch Laboratories under Research Project MIPR ES-7-96i.REFERENCESBleeker, W., and Andre, M. J., "On the Diurnal Variation ofPrecipitation, Particularly Over Central U.S.A., and Its Relationto Large-Scale Orographic Circulation Systems," QuarterlyJournal of the Royal Meteorological Society, T'ol. 77, No. 332, Apr.1951, pp. 260-271.Brooks, D. L., "A Tabular Method for the Computation of Tem-perature Change by Infrared Radiation in the Free

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William E. Shenk and Robert J. Curran

widelydifferent radiation properties of surface material. As seen in the visible image at midday on 22 April,some of the dust has moved a substantial distance offshore due to the continuation of generally easterly flow,which now extends from the surface at least up to500 mb between 25-30N along the coast. There is nonoticeable T~ gradient caused by the dust over theocean in the infrared, but inland, as before, the infraredimage provides much more information than the visibleconcerning location and extent

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HERBERT H. KIMBALL

molecules of the atmosphere.(2) Scattering by the dust and other impurities in theatmosphere. The depletion by both this and the pre- ceding cause is a t a maximum in the ultra-violet, and diminishes toward the infra-red or long-wave end of thespectrum. (3) Absorption by atmospheric gases, principally by water vapor in well-marked bands in the infra-red, and by ozone in the ultra-violet. The following -causes affect principally the intensity of solar radiation as received by the earth.(4) The distance

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