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R. Boers
,
E. W. Eloranta
, and
R. L. Coulter

FEBRUARY 1984R.BOERS, E. W. ELORANTA AND R. L. COULTER247Lidar Observations of Mixed Layer Dynamics: Tests of Parameterized EntrainmentModels of Mixed Layer Growth RateR. BOERS1 AND E. W. ELORANTADepartment of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706R. L. COULTERArgonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439(Manuscript received 1 March 1983, in final form 3 October 1983)ABSTRACTGround based lidar measurements of the atmospheric mixed layer depth, the entrainment zone depth andthe

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Y. L. Pichugina
,
R. M. Banta
,
T. Bonin
,
W. A. Brewer
,
A. Choukulkar
,
B. J. McCarty
,
S. Baidar
,
C. Draxl
,
H. J. S. Fernando
,
J. Kenyon
,
R. Krishnamurthy
,
M. Marquis
,
J. Olson
,
J. Sharp
, and
M. Stoelinga

accepting lower-SNR data and weighting the data in the VAD fit by an uncertainty factor determined from the Cramer–Rao lower bound, a curve that relates the u r uncertainty to SNR ( Rye and Hardesty 1993 ). Monthly availability of lidar measurements η at hub height, estimated as the ratio of the number of observations at a given height N OBS to the expected (total) number N of 15-min profiles in the diurnal cycle ( η = 100% × N OBS / N ), is given in Table 3 . Overall, all three lidars

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James R. Campbell
,
Erica K. Dolinar
,
Simone Lolli
,
Gilberto J. Fochesatto
,
Yu Gu
,
Jasper R. Lewis
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Theodore M. McHardy
,
David R. Ryglicki
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

meridional net daytime forcing gradient are a reflection of their consequential role within the climate system. A positive net daytime cirrus cloud TOA CRF component present over any significant portion of the globe is in direct contrast with the net diurnal cooling globally exhibited by clouds overall (near −20 W m −2 ; Ramanathan et al. 1989 ; Yi et al. 2017 ). Ground-based lidar observations, typically combined with in situ ice microphysical sampling, have long been the backbone of cirrus cloud

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Joseph Swyler Young
and
C. David Whiteman

consequent layering of aerosols is one of the major differences between a stable boundary layer and a well-mixed convective boundary layer, and is an important concept for the process of gaining understanding of the cycle of particulates within PCAP environments. Although lidar observations of CAPs have been made previously, the ceilometer data from PCAPS provided higher-resolution observations of CAP AL stratification and depth than did previous measurements. This work has demonstrated the benefit of

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Kai-Kwong Hon

lidar from the east (i.e., easterly winds). This corresponds to the opposing, or converging, winds resulting from a sea-breeze front at that position and is a typical signature for lidar observations of sea-breeze features. The box-and-whisker plots on the left and right columns of Fig. 2 also follow the presentation in Chan and Hon (2016b) . There is one plot for each runway corridor of HKIA. Each plot is the resultant of 60 forecast head wind profiles, at 1-min output interval, for that runway

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Fabian Eder
,
Marius Schmidt
,
Thomas Damian
,
Katja Träumner
, and
Matthias Mauder

are usually conducted. The objective of this study is to show that the TOS extend down to the ground and affect the near-surface exchange. First, the surface energy balances at two EC stations in an agricultural area in the west of Germany are determined. To demonstrate the existence of TOS in the Prandtl layer, data from three synchronously scanning Doppler lidars are analyzed. Because the flux contributions of the TOS cannot be measured directly, we evaluated their role for the vertical exchange

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Erica K. Dolinar
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Anne E. Garnier
, and
Bryan M. Karpowicz

regional cirrus cloud radiative forcing studies involving both satellite and ground-based lidar cloud observations ( Campbell et al. 2016 ; Lolli et al. 2017 ; Dolinar et al. 2020 ; Campbell et al. 2021 ). Fig . 1. Microphysical parameterizations relating ice cloud D e ( μ m) to temperature (K) from aircraft in situ measurements: H14 (red), two solutions that are tied to IWC (g·m −3 ) from Wyser (1998) (orange), Ou and Liou (1995) (blue), and Thornberry et al. (2017) (black

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C. David Whiteman
,
Manuela Lehner
,
Sebastian W. Hoch
,
Bianca Adler
,
Norbert Kalthoff
,
Roland Vogt
,
Iris Feigenwinter
,
Thomas Haiden
, and
Matthew O. G. Hills

, there have been few studies of flows into basins. A similarity of the flows might be expected given that in both cases the flows come over a relatively high terrain (mountain or plain) to descend lee slopes. Our observations of strong gusty nighttime downslope winds on the lower inner sidewall of the Meteor Crater basin during the METCRAX and METCRAX II field experiments were the motivation for two sets of idealized numerical simulations designed to investigate the similarities between these

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Stephen P. Palm
,
Yuekui Yang
,
Vinay Kayetha
, and
Julien P. Nicolas

backscatter data (V4-00) from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite ( Winker et al. 2009 ). CALIPSO was launched in April of 2006 and has been operating continuously (with a few minor data gaps) since June of 2006. Because of the orbit of CALIPSO , the data over Antarctica are confined to north of 82°S and the detection of blowing snow is limited to layers of 30 m or greater in

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Federico Flores
,
Andrés Arriagada
,
Nicolás Donoso
,
Andrés Martínez
,
Aldo Viscarra
,
Mark Falvey
, and
Rainer Schmitz

. Santamaría-Artigas , F. Ponzoni , C. Pinto , C. Barrientos , and G. Hulley , 2018 : Atacama field campaign: Laboratory and in-situ measurements for remote sensing applications . Int. J. Digit. Earth , 12 , 43 – 61 , https://doi.org/10.1080/17538947.2018.1450901 . 10.1080/17538947.2018.1450901 McKendry , I. , D. van der Kamp , K. Strawbridge , A. Christen , and B. Crawford , 2009 : Simultaneous observations of boundary-layer aerosol layers with cl31 ceilometer and 1064

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