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H-H. Hinrichsen and A. Lehmann

Mediterranean outflow. Deep Sea Res. A, 26, 535-554. , and ,1979b: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow, I1, The deep circulation in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz. Deep-Sea Res, ;4, 26, 555-568. .Armi, L., D. Hebert, N. Oakey, J. Price, P. L. Richardson, T. Rossby, and B. Ruddick, 1989: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 354-370.Bretherton, F. P., R. E. Davis, and C. B. Fandry, 1976: A technique for objective analysis and design of

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Arthur J. Mariano, Annalisa Griffa, Tamay M. Özgökmen, and Enrico Zambianchi

observations targeted for environmental applications. Results for (near) surface circulation in the tropical Pacific, in the Caribbean, and in two subbasins of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea, and Balearic Sea, are presented next, followed by observations from subsurface RAFOS [sound transmission direction opposite to that of Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) technology] floats in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. A new methodology for mean-flow eddy decomposition ( Bauer et al. 1998 ) was used to

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Yu-Chiao Liang, Matthew R. Mazloff, Isabella Rosso, Shih-Wei Fang, and Jin-Yi Yu

.00040 . 10.3389/fmars.2017.00040 Dormann , C. F. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distributional data: A review . Ecography , 30 , 609 – 628 , . 10.1111/j.2007.0906-7590.05171.x D’Ortenzio , F. , and M. Ribera d’Alcalà , 2009 : On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: A satellite analysis . Biogeosciences , 6 , 139 – 148 , . 10

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Mathieu Hamon, Eric Greiner, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, and Elisabeth Remy

are required to adequately represent ocean eddies and associated currents in models ( Le Traon et al. 2017 ). As early as 2001, Ducet and Le Traon (2001) showed that a combination of at least two altimeters is required to solve the main oceanic spatial and time characteristics. Pascual et al. (2006 , 2007 ) used a varying combination of four altimeters ( Jason-1 , ERS-2 , TOPEX/Poseidon, and Geosat Follow-On ) to produce objective analysis of the global ocean and the Mediterranean Sea

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R. H. Käse, H-H. Hinrichsen, and T. B. Sanford

functions ofhorizontal distance. This approach is particularly useful in regions where the T(z)-S(z) relation is nonunique,as in the Mediterranean Water in the North Atlantic. The corresponding expression for the lateral density difference for an observed temperature difference (6T) is 6p = -apo6T( 1 - r-~). Observations from regionsoffshore and along the coast of Portugal are used to evaluate the method. Errors of less than 0.05 psu are exhibitedin the evaluation of salinity determined from T-5 XBT

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Zheng Guo, Haidong Pan, Wei Fan, and Xianqing Lv

model The governing equations of the depth-averaged two-dimensional tidal model are as follows: where t is time; h is the undisturbed sea level; ζ is the sea surface elevation above h ; u and υ are zonal and meridional velocity, respectively; f is the Coriolis parameter; g is the acceleration as a result of gravity; A is the horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient; and k is the BFC to be estimated in this study. b. Adjoint model The adjoint model is used to optimize BFCs to minimize

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R. D. Montoya and A. F. Osorio

Accadia, C. , Zecchetto S. , Lavagnini A. , and Speranza A. , 2007 : Comparison of 10-m wind forecasts from a regional area model and QuikSCAT scatterometer wind observations over the Mediterranean Sea . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 1946 – 1960 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3370.1 . Amador, J. A. , 2008 : The Intra-Americas sea low-level jet . Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. , 1146 , 153 – 188 , doi: 10.1196/annals.1446.012 . Barthelmie, R. J. , 1999 : Monitoring offshore wind and turbulence characteristics

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P. F. J. Lermusiaux

as an inverse problem: The primitive equations. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 1326 – 1336 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1994)122<1326:OOMAAI>2.0.CO;2 Brenner, S. , 1993 : Long-term evolution and dynamics of a persistent warm core eddy in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res. , 40B , 1193 – 1206 . Brink, K. H. , 1991 : Coastal-trapped waves and wind-driven currents over the continental shelf. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 23 , 389 – 412 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.23.010191.002133 Carter, E. F. , and

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Holger König, Kathy L. Schultz Tokos, and Walter Zenk

potential timing problem discovered and relayed to usby the manufacturer. A small drift within a soundsource dock is allowable only when it is constant andknown exactly. The secondary purpose of the MAFOS mooring wasto test the "float" itself. The instrument is only a slightmodification of the generation of German RAFOSfloats [see Rossby et al. (1986) for a description of theoriginal RAFOS instrument] to be used in studies ofthe Mediterranean outflow, and no in situ test of thisparticular variant had

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Geoffrey Trivers and Mark Wimbush

Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, wecomputed the rn resulting from dynamic height changeassociated with the passage of a Mediterranean eddy(meddy). The rnt value associated with the meddy hassmall magnitude, because sound speed c is mainlycontrolled by water temperature and thus r is significantly decreased by the warm meddy water. But thehigh salinity of that water largely compensates thetemperature effect on density, so AD changes onlyslightly. Thus, there is a large difference between mtfor the

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