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Haiyan Jiang, Peter G. Black, Edward J. Zipser, Frank D. Marks Jr., and Eric W. Uhlhorn

measurement of the sea surface wind speed and path-integrated rain rate. On board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D hurricane research aircraft, SFMR data are obtained on tropical cyclones over Atlantic Ocean during the NOAA HRD’s annual program of research flights since 1980. Since 1999, the HRD began to transmit the real-time SFMR surface winds and rainfall rates to the Tropical Prediction Center (TPC) for application to hurricane forecasts. The advantage of SFMR is that

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Heini Wernli and Michael Sprenger

tropospheric air mass was irreversibly transferred to the midlatitude lower stratosphere. Studying examples of autumntime heavy precipitation events south of the Alps, Massacand et al. (1998) found that stratospheric PV streamers extending over western Europe into the Mediterranean act as precursors for heavy rain events. This relationship has been studied in more detail and quantified climatologically for the time period of 1957–2002 by Martius et al. (2006) . The streamers evolve slowly and induce the

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Maurice L. Blackmon and Ngar-Cheung Lau

hemispheric distributions of a selected set of temporal mean, variance and covariance statisticsproduced by a general circulation model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory arecompared with observations. The fields presented include 1) the seasonally averaged 300 mb geopotentialheight and zonal wind speed, sea level pressure and 500 mb vertical velocity; 2) the root-mean-squaresof 500 and 1000 mb heights, and of 850 mb temperature; 3) the correlation coefficient between the 1000and 500

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Stephen R. Herbener, Susan C. van den Heever, Gustavo G. Carrió, Stephen M. Saleeby, and William R. Cotton

: Development of a global model of mineral dust aerosol microphysics . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 2441 – 2458 , doi: 10.5194/acp-9-2441-2009 . Levin , Z. , A. Teller , E. Ganor , and Y. Yin , 2005 : On the interactions of mineral dust, sea-salt particles, and clouds: A measurement and modeling study from the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment campaign . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D20202 , doi: 10.1029/2005JD005810 . Lilly , D. K. , 1962 : On the numerical simulation of buoyant convection

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D. H. Lenschow

were obtained bycomparing upwind station measurements with thoseobtained downwind after the air had passed over thesea. Measurements of the direct transfer of heat and moisture into the atmosphere, with the air much colder thanthe water, by the eddy correlation technique have beenobtained from an aircraft by Bunker (1960) over theNorth At]antic Ocean, and by Bunker and Cornell(1971) over the Mediterranean Sea. Lenschow (1965)measured the vertical flux of sensible heat and theresultant air

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C. F. Powell, A. R. Baker, T. D. Jickells, H. W. Bange, R. J. Chance, and C. Yodle

variability of the biogeochemical role of Mediterranean aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea . Biogeosciences , 8 , 1067 – 1080 , doi: 10.5194/bg-8-1067-2011 . Tian , Z. L. , P. Olliver , A. Veron , and T. M. Church , 2008 : Atmospheric Fe deposition modes at Bermuda and the adjacent Sargasso Sea . Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. , 9 , Q08007 , doi: 10.1029/2007GC001868 . Ussher , S. , E. P. Achterberg , C. F. Powell , A. R. Baker , T. D. Jickells , R. Torres , and P. J

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Cynthia H. Twohy

in TC4 and NAMMA . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D00J08 , doi: 10.1029/2009JD013017 . Levin , Z. , A. Teller , E. Ganor , and Y. Yin , 2005 : On the interactions of mineral dust, sea-salt particles, and clouds: A measurement and modeling study from the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment campaign . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D20202 , doi: 10.1029/2005JD005810 . Lieke , K. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations

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Yochanan Kushnir and John M. Wallace

500 mb he/ght field and the an/sotropytensor of the 500 mb wind field. The western Atlantic ( WA ) pattern stands out somewhat above the backgroundcontinuum in the month-to-month (60-180 day period) variability.1. Introduction In contrast to the distinctive shapes associated withbaroelinie instability that we are accustomed to seeingon daily sea-level pressure or upper level geopotentialheight charts, the spatial patterns associated withweekly, monthly, or seasonal mean geopotential

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Bryant J. McAvaney, William Bourke, and Kamal Puri

and ozone distributions are held fixedin latitude and height throughout the integration; thereis no variation in longitude. The albedo of land and sea varies latitudinally onlyand is derived from the charts of Posey and Clapp(1964). Over sea ice the albedo is fixed at 0.7.3) BOUNDARY LAYER FORMULATION The stress at the surface and the sensible and latentheat fluxes in the model are given by the bulk aerodynamic parameterization as,follows: r,-=pxCD[VXlVx . H, -- I I (0

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Ulrike Lohmann

mass mixing ratios of sulfate, organic and black carbon, sub- and supermicron dust (0–1 μ m and 1–2 μ m), and sub- and supermicron sea salt (0–1 μ m and 1–10 μ m). Sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon are as described in Lohmann et al. (1999a) except that the exponential aging time, where a hydrophobic carbonaceous aerosol becomes hydrophilic, has been reduced to 24 h. Also, the in-cloud scavenging has been changed such that instead of following Giorgi and Chameides (1986) who assume a

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